Table of Contents > Herbs & Supplements > Gamma oryzanol Print

Gamma oryzanol

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Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosteryl ferulate calclate, campestrol, campesteryl ferulate, compestanyl ferulate, crude rice bran oil, cycloartanol, cycloartenol, cycloartenyl ferulate, cycloaternol, cyclobranol, ferulic acid, ferulic acid derivatives, ferulic acid esters, gamma-orizanol, gamma-oryzanol, gamma-Oryzanol Fine Particle, gamma-oz, gammariza, gammatsul, guntrin, Hi-Z®, maspiron, oliver, oryvita, oryzaal, oryzanol, oz, rice bran oil, sitostanyl ferulate sitosteryl ferulate, sterols, stigmasterol, stigmasteryl ferulate, thiaminogen, triterpene alcohol, triterpenyl alcohol.

Background
  • Gamma oryzanol is a mixture of ferulic acid esters of sterol and triterpene alcohols, and it occurs in rice bran oil at a level of 1-2%, although it has been extracted from corn and barley oils as well. It is theorized that some of the health benefits from rice bran oil, namely, its cholesterol-lowering effects, may be due to its gamma oryzanol content.
  • Gamma oryzanol was first isolated and purified in the 1950s. In the 1960s, it was used medically in Japan for anxiety. Each year Japan manufactures 7,500 tons of gamma oryzanol from 150,000 tons of rice bran. Not surprisingly, most of the research on oryzanol has been performed in Japan.
  • Gamma oryzanol is frequently sold as a bodybuilding aid, specifically to increase testosterone levels, stimulate the release of endorphins (pain-relieving substances made in the body), and promote the growth of lean muscle tissue. However, most currently available studies do not support these claims.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Preliminary evidence indicates that gamma oryzanol may reduce hyperlipidemia. Gamma oryzanol seems to reduce total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides. Additional study is needed to establish gamma oryzanol's effect on hyperlipidemia.

B


Little research has been done on the effects of gamma oryzanol on gastritis. Additional study is needed to assess its potential use.

C


Preliminary evidence has indicated that gamma oryzanol affects several parts of the endocrine system, and may reduce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with hypothyroidism. More studies are needed in this area and other areas of endocrinology to establish gamma oryzanol's effects.

C


Gamma oryzanol may reduce menopausal symptoms. However, these results must be viewed cautiously as treatment of menopause symptoms has a high placebo effect. Additional study is needed in this area to elucidate gamma oryzanol's effect on menopausal symptoms.

C


Gamma oryzanol has been used to reduce restenosis (return of blood vessel blockages after treatment) after coronary dilation, in combination with ticlopidine and probucol. Although restenosis was not impacted by any of the treatments, study with gamma oryzanol alone is needed to establish its effect on restenosis.

C


A few studies have used gamma oryzanol by mouth or applied on the skin to treat skin conditions. Although these studies seem to indicate that gamma oryzanol may be useful, additional study needed to assess gamma oryzanol's effects.

C


Gamma oryzanol has been touted as a bodybuilding aid, specifically to increase testosterone levels, stimulate the release of endorphins (pain-relieving substances made in the body), and promote the growth of lean muscle tissue. However, there is little or no evidence to support these claims. Additional study is needed to establish gamma oryzanol's effect on bodybuilding.

D
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Anemia, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anxiety, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), atopic dermatitis, body fat reducer, cancer, central nervous system disorders (autonomic imbalance), cosmetics, diabetes, digestive complaints, fatty liver, food uses, gynecologic disorders (hypoovarianism), heartburn, heart disease, hypercalciuria (excessive amounts of calcium in the urine), immunostimulant, kidney stones, muscle soreness, nausea, nervous system function (suppressant), pain, sports or other physical injuries, exercise recovery, ulcers, vomiting, whiplash.

Dosing

Adults (over 18 years old)

  • There is no proven effective dose for gamma oryzanol. A common dose of gamma oryzanol is 300 milligrams, which has been taken up to six months for hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol). This dose has also been used for hypothyroidism as a single dose. Another common dose is 100 milligrams of Hi-Z® (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Tokyo, Japan), which has been has been taken for skin conditions (up to four weeks) or hyperlipidemia (up to sixteen weeks). For bodybuilding, 500 milligrams daily has been used according to manufacturer's instructions for up to nine weeks. For menopausal symptoms or hyperlipidemia, 1.5 grams of gamma oryzanol Fine Particle (300 milligrams gamma oryzanol included) for up to eight weeks has been used.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven effective dose for gamma oryzanol in children. However, 20 milliliters of 0.5% gamma oryzanol solution has been dissolved in the bathtub to form a medicinal bath for up to six months in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to gamma oryzanol, its components, or rice bran oil.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Many clinical trials have been conducted and reported no adverse effects with gamma oryzanol. It is likely safe when taken at normal doses, and it is not considered toxic or carcinogenic (cancer causing).

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

  • Gamma oryzanol is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Although not well studied in humans, gamma oryzanol may alter hormone production.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Although not well studied in humans, oryzanol combined with a high cholesterol diet may increase the risk of bleeding. Gamma oryzanol has also shown significant cholesterol-lowering effects. Caution is advised when taking gamma oryzanol with other cholesterol-lowering agents due to additive effects.
  • In pharmacological tests, cycloartenol ferulic acid ester, a component of gamma oryzanol, may have a suppressant effect on the central nervous system; its properties seemed different from those of existing major and minor tranquilizers.
  • Although not well studied in humans, gamma oryzanol may suppress growth hormone synthesis, prolactin release, and luteinizing hormone release.
  • Gamma oryzanol may increase insulin sensitivity in diabetics. Patients taking insulin or agents that alter blood sugar levels should use gamma oryzanol with caution. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Gamma oryzanol may moderately stimulate the immune system and caution is advised in patients taking immunomodulating agents.
  • Gamma oryzanol may reduce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with hypothyroidism.

Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements

  • Although not well studied in humans, oryzanol combined with a high cholesterol diet may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised.
  • In pharmacological tests, cycloartenol ferulic acid ester, a component of gamma oryzanol, may have a suppressant effect on the central nervous system; its properties seemed different from those of existing major and minor tranquilizers.
  • Although not well studied in humans, gamma oryzanol may increase insulin sensitivity in diabetics. Patients using herbs that alter blood sugar levels should use gamma oryzanol with caution. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Gamma oryzanol may moderately stimulate the immune system. Caution is advised in patients taking immunomodulating herbs due to possible additive effects.
  • Gamma oryzanol may reduce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with hypothyroidism.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Accinni R, Rosina M, Bamonti F, et al. Effects of combined dietary supplementation on oxidative and inflammatory status in dyslipidemic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2006;16(2):121-127.
  2. Arai T. [Effect of gamma-oryzanol on indefinite complaints in the gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic gastritis--studies on the endocrinological environment (author's transl)]. Horumon To Rinsho 1982;30(3):271-279.
  3. Berger A, Rein D, Schafer A, et al. Similar cholesterol-lowering properties of rice bran oil, with varied gamma-oryzanol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Eur J Nutr 2005;44(3):163-173.
  4. Chen CW, Cheng HH. A rice bran oil diet increases LDL-receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expressions and insulin sensitivity in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2006;136(6):1472-1476.
  5. Hayakawa R. Clinical evaluation of FC-9201 cream containing 1.0% gamma-oryzanol. Skin Research 1993;35(1):131-154.
  6. Juliano C, Cossu M, Alamanni MC, et al. Antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol: mechanism of action and its effect on oxidative stability of pharmaceutical oils. Int J Pharm 8-11-2005;299(1-2):146-154.
  7. Miller A, Engel KH. Content of gamma-oryzanol and composition of steryl ferulates in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) of European origin. J Agric.Food Chem 10-18-2006;54(21):8127-8133.
  8. Most MM, Tulley R, Morales S, et al. Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81(1):64-68.
  9. Ng SS, Figg WD. Antitumor activity of herbal supplements in human prostate cancer xenografts implanted in immunodeficient mice. Anticancer Res 2003;23(5A):3585-3590.
  10. Parrado J, Miramontes E, Jover M, et al. Prevention of brain protein and lipid oxidation elicited by a water-soluble oryzanol enzymatic extract derived from rice bran. Eur J Nutr 2003;42(6):307-314.
  11. Sierra S, Lara-Villoslada F, Olivares M, et al. Increased immune response in mice consuming rice bran oil. Eur J Nutr 2005;44(8):509-516.
  12. Suh MH, Yoo SH, Chang PS, et al. Antioxidative activity of microencapsulated gamma-oryzanol on high cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric.Food Chem 12-14-2005;53(25):9747-9750.
  13. Umehara K, Shimokawa Y, Miyamoto G. Effect of gamma-oryzanol on cytochrome P450 activities in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull 2004;27(7):1151-1153.
  14. Wheeler KB, Garleb KA. Gamma oryzanol-plant sterol supplementation: metabolic, endocrine, and physiologic effects. Int J Sport Nutr 1991;1(2):170-177.
  15. Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ, Woolfrey B, et al. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Nutr Biochem 5-16-2006;

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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