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Monterey pine (Pinus radiata)

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Also listed as: Pinus radiata
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Astringenen, borovice montereyská (Czech), borovice paprscitá (Czech), Cambria pine, catechin, Cedros Island pine, dihydroquercetin, Enzogenol®, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, esters, ferulic acid, flavonoid glycosides, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanones, glucopyranoside, glucopyranosiduronic acid, Guadalupe Island pine, hydroxybenzoic acid, insignis pine, insignisden (Afrikaans), MGX-008, Monterey pine, Monterey-Kiefer (German), montoree matsu (Japanese), myricetin, natural organic acids, pin de Monterey (French), pin remarquable (French), piñeiro de repoboación (Portuguese), pino de repoblación (Spanish), pino di Monterey (Italian), pino insigne (Italian), Pinus insignis, Pinus radiata, Pinus tuberculata, proanthocyandins, quercetin, radiata pine, sosna kalifornijska (Polish), sosna luchistaya (Russian), taxifolin, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, trans-caffeic acid, trans-ferulic acid, transgenic radiata pine, vanillic acid.
  • Selected combination products: In addition to Pinus radiata extract, products marketed as "Enzogenol®" may contain additional substances including, but not limited to, grapeseed extract (Vitis vinifera), rutin, or selenium.

Background
  • Pinus radiata (Monterey pine), is a tree native to coastal California and Mexico. Native American tribes of the West Coast of North America used Monterey pine to expel parasites, as an antiseptic, diuretic, and skin reddener, for water filtration, and to treat bladder problems, colds, coughs, influenza, kidney problems, migraine headache, joint and muscle problems, sores, and tuberculosis. Currently, Monterey pine is used around the world for timber.
  • High quality research supporting the use of Monterey pine for any medical condition is currently lacking. Enzogenol®, a commercially available dietary supplement that contains Monterey pine extract, has been shown in clinical trials to have antioxidant properties and to improve heart health and mental performance. While these findings are promising, additional research is needed.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Antioxidant-rich plants such as Monterey pine may offer protection against degenerative diseases and aging. Early studies showed that a combination of Monterey pine and vitamin C decreased cell damage from oxidation. Additional research is needed.

C


Heart tissue can be damaged by oxidants. Antioxidant-rich plants such as Monterey pine may help protect the heart against the damaging effects of oxidants. Early human study showed that a dietary supplement containing Monterey pine extract and vitamin C was safe, well tolerated, and may have heart health benefits. However, other study produced conflicting results. Further research is required before a conclusion can be made.

C


Antioxidants, including those in Monterey Pine, may protect against age-related decline in mental abilities and improve mental performance. In early study, a preparation of Monterey pine and vitamin C improved mental function in older men more than vitamin C alone. Additional study is required.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Antiseptic, boils, burn treatment, cough, diuretic, headache, influenza, kidney and bladder disorders, migraine, rheumatic diseases, skin sores, tuberculosis.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • Monterey pine has been taken by mouth as an Enzogenol® capsule containing 120 milligrams of Monterey pine flavonoid extract and 60 milligrams of vitamin C.
  • As an antioxidant, 480 milligrams of Enzogenol® and 240 milligrams of vitamin C has been taken by mouth for 12 weeks.
  • For heart health, 480 milligrams of Enzogenol® and 60-240 milligrams of vitamin C has been taken by mouth daily for 12 weeks.
  • For mental performance, 960 milligrams of Enzogenol® and 120 milligrams of vitamin C has been taken by mouth daily for five weeks.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose of Monterey pine in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Monterey pine, its components (such as pollen), airborne allergens, or members of the Pinaceae family.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Side effects may include skin rash or seasonal allergic reactions such as runny nose and eye irritation.
  • Use cautiously in patients taking blood pressure lowering agents or those with blood pressure disorders, as Monterey pine may lower blood pressure.
  • Use cautiously in patients with high levels of fats or cholesterol in the blood, as Monterey pine may raise blood levels of fats and cholesterol.
  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Monterey pine, its components (such as pollen), airborne allergens, or members of the Pinaceae family.
  • Avoid during pregnancy or breastfeeding, due to a lack of sufficient data.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Avoid in pregnant or breastfeeding women, due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Monterey pine may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised when using medications that affect blood pressure.
  • Montery pine may also interact with anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs that lower fats or cholesterol, and weight loss agents.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Monterey pine may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that affect blood pressure.
  • Montery pine may also interact with anti-inflammatory herbs or supplements, antioxidants, herbs or supplements that lower fats or cholesterol, and weight loss herbs and supplements.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Burry JN. Environmental dermatitis: contact dermatitis from . Med J Aust 1977;2(1):13-14.
  2. Cornford CA, Fountain DW, Burr RG. IgE-binding proteins from pine ( D. Don) pollen: evidence for cross-reactivity with ryegrass (). Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1990;93(1):41-46.
  3. Harris RM, German DF. The incidence of pine pollen reactivity in an allergic atopic population. Ann Allergy 1985;55(5):678-679.
  4. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci 1999;19(18):8114-8121.
  5. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits. J Neurosc 1998;18(19):8047-8055.
  6. Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, et al. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996;156(6):637-642.
  7. Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A, et al. Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 1996;312(7029):478-481.
  8. Loureiro G, Rabaca MA, Blanco B, et al. Aeroallergens sensitization in an allergic paediatric population of Cova da Beira, Portugal. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2005;33(4):192-198.
  9. Marcos C, Rodriguez FJ, Luna I, et al. I pollen aerobiology and clinical sensitization in northwest Spain. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;87(1):39-42.
  10. Pipingas A, Silberstein RB, Vitetta L, et al. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a bark extract formulation. Phytother Res 2008;22(9):1168-1174.
  11. Senthilmohan ST, Zhang Z, Stanley RA. Effects of flavonoid extract Enzogenol® with vitamin C on protein oxidation and DNA damage in older human subjects. Nutrition Research 2003;23(9):1199-1210.
  12. Shand B, Strey C, Scott R, et al. Pilot study on the clinical effects of dietary supplementation with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract of pine bark and vitamin C. Phytother Res 2003;17(5):490-494.
  13. Wood JE, Senthilmohal ST, Peskin AV. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 2002;77(2):155-161.
  14. Youdim KA, Spencer JP, Schroeter H, et al. Dietary flavonoids as potential neuroprotectants. Biol Chem 2002;383(3-4):503-519.
  15. Young JM, Shand BI, McGregor PM, et al. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radic Res 2006;40(1):85-94.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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