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Chitosan (Deacetylated chitin biopolymer)

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Also listed as: Deacetylated chitin biopolymer
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Absorbitol®, carboxybutyl chitosan, chitin, chitosan ascorbate, deacetylated chitin biopolymer, deacetylated chitosan, enzymatic polychitosamine hydrolisat, ExofatT, Fat AbsorbT, Fat BlockerT, Fat BreakerT, FatsorbT, Fat TrapperT, Fat Trapper PlusT, Fronac NT, glucosamine, HEP-30, kitosan, LipoSan UltraT,microcrystalline chitosan, mono-carboxymethylated chitosan, N-acetylated glucosamine, Nofat®, NovamicT, Somagril®, sulfated carboxymethylchitosan, sulfated chitosan, sulfated N-acetylchitosan, trimethyl chitosan chloride.

Background
  • Chitosan comes from chitin, which is part of the outer shell-like structure of insects, spiders, and crustaceans.
  • Chitosan is sold in the United States and other countries as a form of dietary fiber that reduces fat absorption. However, scientific evidence suggests only a small effect of chitosan on fat absorption.
  • Chitosan may be effective for lowering levels of blood cholesterol or lipids. Whether the use of chitosan is equal to or better than other treatments for high cholesterol is not yet known. Study results suggest that chitosan may help improve cholesterol levels when combined with a low-calorie diet.
  • Some evidence indicates that chitosan may be useful for patients undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure and in the management of dental plaque. More evidence is needed to confirm these results.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Study results suggest that chitosan may help improve cholesterol levels when combined with a low-calorie diet.

B


While some studies suggest that chitosan is an effective weight loss therapy, others have found it is ineffective. More evidence is needed.

B


Evidence suggests that chitosan has antibacterial properties and may reduce dental plaque. More evidence is needed.

C


Limited evidence suggests that chitosan may be useful during long-term hemodialysis. Further studies are needed to determine safety and efficacy.

C


There is limited evidence on the effects of chitosan in wound healing. Better studies are needed.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Antacid, antimicrobial, appetite suppressant, arthritis, blood clotting disorders, cancer, chlamydia, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, high blood pressure, HIV, immune function, infections, leukemia, nerve regeneration, physical endurance, sleep.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • Doses of chitosan include: 1 to 6 grams daily for up to 8 weeks, and 450 milligrams three times daily for up to 12 weeks. Chitosan has been applied to the skin for 3 to 6 months.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for chitosan in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to chitosan, its constituents, chitin, or crustaceans. People with shellfish allergies may be allergic to chitosan.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Chitosan may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Chitosan may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or in patients taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Chitosan may cause stomach discomfort, constipation, gas, diarrhea, nausea, and throat dryness. Chitosan may interfere with fat absorption from the intestine, causing excessive fat to be lost in the stool, and may reduce absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Chitosan may also cause headache, swollen heels and wrists, and itching of the skin.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Chitosan is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Chitosan may reduce absorption of calcium and vitamin D.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Chitosan may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or in patients taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Chitosan may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or injection should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare provider. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Chitosan may have additive effects when used with cholesterol-lowering, anti-obesity, or antibiotic drugs. Chitosan may also slow the absorption of oral contraceptives.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Chitosan may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Chitosan may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients taking herbs or supplements that may increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Chitosan may have additive effects when used with cholesterol-lowering, anti-obesity, or antibiotic herbs and supplements.
  • Use of chitosan may decrease the absorption of calcium, magnesium, selenium, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, and may also slow the absorption of oral contraceptives. Use of chitosan with vitamin C may decrease fat absorption.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Aiedeh K, Gianasi E, Orienti I, Zecchi V. Chitosan microcapsules as controlled release systems for insulin. J Microencapsul. 1997;14(5):567-576.
  2. Aspden TJ, Mason JD, Jones NS, et al. Chitosan as a nasal delivery system: the effect of chitosan solutions on in vitro and in vivo mucociliary transport rates in human turbinates and volunteers. J Pharm Sci 1997;86(4):509-513.
  3. Bokura H, Kobayashi S. Chitosan decreases total cholesterol in women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(5):721-725.
  4. Ernst E, Pitter MH. Chitosan as a treatment for body weight reduction? A meta-analysis. Perfusion 1998;11(11):461-465.
  5. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation does not affect fat absorption in healthy males fed a high-fat diet, a pilot study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26(1):119-122.
  6. Girola M, De Bernardi M, Contos S, et al. Dose effect in lipid-lowering activity of a new dietary integrator (chitosan, Garcinia cambogia extract, and chrome). Acta Toxicol Ther 1996;17:25-40.
  7. Guerciolini R, Radu-Radulescu L, Boldrin M, et al. Comparative evaluation of fecal fat excretion induced by orlistat and chitosan. Obes Res. 2001;9(6):364-367.
  8. Illum L, Jabbal-Gill I, Hinchcliffe M, et al. Chitosan as a novel nasal delivery system for vaccines. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 9-23-2001;51(1-3):81-96.
  9. Jing SB, Li L, Ji D, et al. Effect of chitosan on renal function in patients with chronic renal failure. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997;49(7):721-723.
  10. Koide SS. Chitin-chitosan: properties, benefits and risks. Nutrition Research 1998;8(6):1091-1101.
  11. Mhurchu CN, Poppitt SD, McGill AT, et al. The effect of the dietary supplement, Chitosan, on body weight: a randomised controlled trial in 250 overweight and obese adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(9):1149-1156.
  12. Sawayanagi Y, Nambu N, Nagai T. Use of chitosan for sustained-release preparations of water-soluble drugs. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1982;30(11):4213-4215.
  13. Thanou M, Verhoef JC, Junginger HE. Oral drug absorption enhancement by chitosan and its derivatives. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 11-5-2001;52(2):117-126.
  14. Uchegbu IF, Schatzlein AG, Tetley L, et al. Polymeric chitosan-based vesicles for drug delivery. J Pharm Pharmacol 1998;50(5):453-458.
  15. Veneroni G, Veneroni F, Contos S, et al. Effect of new chitosan dietary integrator and hypocaloric diet on hyperlipidemia and overweight in obese patients. Acta Toxicol Ther 1996;17:53-70.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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