Table of Contents > Herbs & Supplements > Baikal skullcap(Scutellaria barbata, Scutellaria baicalensis) Print

Baikal skullcap(Scutellaria barbata, Scutellaria baicalensis)

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Also listed as: Scutellaria barbata, Scutellaria baicalensis
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • 2',5,6',7-Tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF), 2(S)-2',7-dihydroxy-5,8-dimethoxyflavanone, 4'-hydroxywogonin, 5,6,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy flavanone-7-O-glucuronide, 6-(2,3-epoxy-2-isopropyl-n-propoxyl)barbatin C, 6,7-di-O-nicotinoylscutebarbatine G, 6-O-(2-carbonyl-3-methylbutanoyl)scutehenanine A, 6-O-acetylscutehenanine A, 6-O-nicotinoyl-7-O-acetylscutebarbatine G, 6-O-nicotinoylscutebarbatine G, (6S,9R)6-hydroxy-4,4,7a-trimethyl-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-1-benzofuran-2(4H)-one, (11E)-6alpha-acetoxy-7beta,8beta-dihydroxy-ent-clerodan-3,11,13-trien-15,16-olide (6-acetoxybarbatin C, 2), (13R)-6alpha,7beta-dihydroxy-8beta,13-epoxy-11beta-nicotinyloxy-ent-clerodan-3-en-15,16-olide (scutelinquanine D, 1), apigenin, apigenin 5-O-beta-glucopyranoside, apigenin-7-O-beta-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, baicalin, ban-ji-ryun (Korean), banjiryun (Korean), ban-zhi-lian (Chinese), barbatin A, barbatin B, barbatin C, benzyaldehyde, berberine, BZL101, caicalin, carthamidin, chrysin-6-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (SbC4H), ent-clerodane diterpenoids, ethyl-7-O-apigenin-glucuronate, flavonoidglycoside, flavonoids, glucan S b RP-1?, herba Scutellariae barbatae, hexahydrofarnesylacetone, isocarthamidin, isoscutellarein-8-O-glucuronide, Lamiaceae (family), luteolin, menthol, neoclerodane diterpenoids, neoderodane diterpenoids, organic acids, oroxylin A, oroxylin A-7-O-glucuronide, p-coumaric acid, PC-SPES, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase isoforms (SbPAL1, SbPAL2, and SbAPL3), pheophorbide A, resveratrol, (S)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one, SBJ, scutebarbatine B, scutebarbatine F, scutebarbatine G, scutebarbatine W, scutebarbatine X, scutebarbatine Y, scutebarbatine Z, scutehenanine A, scutehenanine B, scutehenanine C, scutehenanine D, scutehenanine H, scutellarein, Scutelleria baicalensis spp., Scutellaria barbata spp., Scutellaria rivularis Wall., scutellarin, viscidulin III, water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPS'-1, WSPS'-2, and WSPS'-3), wogonin, wogonoside.
  • Combination product (example): PC-SPES (chrysanthemum, dyer's woad, licorice, rabdosia, reishi, san-qi ginseng, saw palmetto, Scutellaria baicalensis).
  • Note: Avoid confusion between Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria barbata) and Scutellaria lateriflora, which is known as scullcap.
  • Warning: Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in PC-SPES. PC-SPES has been recalled from the U.S. market due to possible contamination and should not be used.

Background
  • Scutellaria barbata is a perennial, native to Korea and southern China. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Scutellaria barbata is known as ban-zhi-lian and, in traditional Korean medicine, as banjiryun. Scutellaria barbata is used to treat neurological disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and antitumor agent, particularly in the liver, where it has been used to treat such conditions as hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Scutellaria barbata has been used together with Oldenlandia diffusa in TCM for treating liver, lung, and rectal tumors.
  • An aqueous extract of Scutellaria barbata (BZL101) may stabilize disease progression and reduce tumor size in some patients with advanced breast cancer. In Western herbalism, Scutellaria baicalensis is better known as an ingredient in PC-SPES, an herbal preparation for the treatment of prostate cancer. Flavones from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis may have nerve protection properties.
  • Warning: Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in PC-SPES, an herbal product for the treatment of prostate cancer. PC-SPES has been recalled from the U.S. market and should not be used.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Preliminary data suggests that Scutellaria barbata extract may stabilize disease progression and reduce tumor size in some patients with advanced breast cancer. Additional research is needed in this area.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Allergies, anemia, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, anxiety, depression, diuretic, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, liver diseases, liver protection, migraines, myocardial ischemia, neurological trauma, neuroprotective, rabies, sedative, stroke.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • For cancer, 350 milliliters of an extract of Scutellaria barbata (BZL101) has been taken by mouth until disease progression, toxicity, or the patient chooses to discontinue.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for Scutellaria barbata or Scutellaria baicalensis in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Scutellaria baicalensis, Scutellaria barbata, their constituents, or members of the Lamiaceae family.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Use Scutellaria baicalensis cautiously in patients taking sedatives. Drowsiness or sedation may occur. Use caution if driving or operating heavy machinery.
  • Use Scutellaria barbata or Scutellaria baicalensis cautiously in patients taking anticancer agents, particularly cyclophosphamide or cisplatin.
  • Scutellaria barbata may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs, herbs, or supplements using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these agents may change in the blood and may cause increased or decreased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. Patients taking any medications should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Use cautiously in patients taking diuretics, as Scutellaria barbata is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to improve urine flow.
  • Scutellaria baicalensis may lower blood sugar levels when used together with metformin. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Avoid Scutellaria baicalensis in pregnant or breastfeeding women. Although not well studied in humans, oroxylin A from Scutellaria baicalensis root may produce relaxation of the uterus. Taking Scutellaria baicalensis in amounts larger than 32 grams per kilogram daily may harm the mother.
  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Scutellaria barbata, Scutellaria baicalensis, their constituents, or members of the Lamiaceae family.
  • Scutellaria baicalensis or Scutellaria barbata may cause change in liver enzymes, constipation, diarrhea, fatigue, flatulence, headache, nausea, pneumonia, rib pain, or vomiting.
  • Warning: Scutellaria baicalensis is an ingredient in PC-SPES, an herbal product for the treatment of prostate cancer. PC-SPES has been recalled from the U.S. market and should not be used.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Avoid Scutellaria baicalensis in pregnant or breastfeeding women.
  • Although not well studied in humans, oroxylin A from Scutellaria baicalensis root may produce relaxation of the uterus. Taking Scutellaria baicalensis in amounts larger than 32 grams per kilogram daily may harm the mother.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Scutellaria baicalensis may lower blood sugar levels when used together with metformin. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking insulin or drugs for diabetes by mouth should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Scutellaria barbata may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may change in the blood and may cause increased or decreased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. Patients taking any medication should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Scutellaria baicalensis may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some drugs. Examples include benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan®) or diazepam (Valium®), barbiturates such as phenobarbital, narcotics such as codeine, some antidepressants, and alcohol. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery.
  • Scutellaria barbata or Scutellaria baicalensis may interact with 5-fluorouracil, adjuvants (antitoxoplasma), agents that affect the blood, antibiotics, anticancer agents (including cisplatin), antifungals, antihistamines, anti-inflammatories, antivirals, bone agents, cardiovascular agents, cyclophosphamide, dermatologic agents, diuretics, gastrointestinal agents, immunosuppressants, lipid-lowering agents, neurologic agents, pain relievers, or sedatives.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Scutellaria barbata may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may change in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements potentially may have on the P450 system.
  • Scutellaria baicalensis may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Scutellaria baicalensis may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some herbs or supplements.
  • Scutellaria baicalensis may interact with PC-SPES, which contains Scutellaria baicalensis. PC-SPES has been recalled from the U.S. market due to possible contamination and should not be used.
  • Scutellaria barbata or Scutellaria baicalensis may interact with adjuvants (antitoxoplasma), agents that affect the blood, antibacterials, anticancer agents, antifungals, antihistamines, anti-inflammatories, antioxidants, antivirals, berberine, bone agents, cardiovascular agents, Coptis, dermatologic agents, diuretics, garlic, gastrointestinal agents, hepatics, immunomodulators, lipid-lowering agents, neurologic agents, Oldenlandia diffusa, or pain relievers.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Cha YY, Lee EO, Lee HJ, et al. Methylene chloride fraction of induces apoptosis in human U937 leukemia cells via the mitochondrial signaling pathway. Clin Chim Acta 2004;348(1-2):41-48.
  2. Chan JY, Tang PM, Hon PM, et al. Pheophorbide a, a major antitumor component purified from , induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Planta Med 2006;72(1):28-33.
  3. Cole IB, Cao J, Alan AR, et al. Comparisons of , and : genome size, antioxidant potential and phytochemistry. Planta Med 2008;74(4):474-481.
  4. Kaplya OA, Sherstoboev EY, Zueva EP, et al. Effect of baikal skullcap extract administered alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide on natural cytotoxicity system in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. Bull Exp Biol Med 2004;137(5):471-474.
  5. Kim DI, Lee TK, Lim IS, et al. Regulation of IGF-I production and proliferation of human leiomyomal smooth muscle cells by D. Don in vitro: isolation of flavonoids of apigenin and luteolin as acting compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005;205(3):213-224.
  6. Kim JH, Lee EO, Lee HJ, et al. Caspase activation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/Akt inhibition were involved in luteolin-induced apoptosis in Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006;1090:147-160.
  7. Lee TK, Cho HL, Kim D, et al. D. Don induces c-fos gene expression in human uterine leiomyomal cells by activating beta2-adrenergic receptors. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2004;14(3):526-531.
  8. Lee TK, Kim DI, Song YL, et al. Differential inhibition of D. Don (Lamiaceae) on HCG-promoted proliferation of cultured uterine leiomyomal and myometrial smooth muscle cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2004;26(3):329-342.
  9. Lee TK, Lee DK, Kim DI, et al. Inhibitory effects of D. Don on human uterine leiomyomal smooth muscle cell proliferation through cell cycle analysis. Int Immunopharmacol 2004;4(3):447-454.
  10. Lin JM, Liu Y, Luo RC. [Effect of extract against human hepatocellular Hep-G2 cell proliferation and its mechanism]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2006;26(7):975-977.
  11. Porterfield, H. UsToo PC-SPES surveys: review of studies and update of previous survey results. Mol Urol 2000;4(3):289-291.
  12. Suh SJ, Yoon JW, Lee TK, et al. Chemoprevention of on human cancer cells and tumorigenesis in skin cancer. Phytother Res 2007;21(2):135-141.
  13. Tang PM, Chan JY, Au SW, et al. Pheophorbide a, an active compound isolated from possesses photodynamic activities by inducing apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther 2006;5(9):1111-1116.
  14. Udintsev SN, Razina TG, Iaremenko KV. [The antitumor effect of Baikal skullcap]. Vopr Onkol 1990;36(5):602-607.
  15. Yin X, Zhou J, Jie C, et al. Anticancer activity and mechanism of extract on human lung cancer cell line A549. Life Sci 2004;75(18):2233-2244.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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