Table of Contents > Interactions & Depletions > Antivirals Print



Antivirals/Nutrient Depletion:
  • CarnitineCarnitine: Based on a clinical trial, adefovir dipivoxil may reduce free carnitine levels (9237705). Based on a review, zidovudine may reduce carnitine levels, which may result from gastrointestinal disturbances, renal losses, or shifts in metabolic pathways (8576568). Based on animal study, zidovudine may reduce carnitine due to inhibition of L-carnitine transporter across mitochondrial membranes (12732360).
  • CopperCopper: Based on human study, levels of copper may be reduced in individuals treated with zidovudine (Retrovir®, AZT) (1941528). Based on clinical study, a decrease in the copper-zinc ratio may be beneficial in HIV/AIDS patients (11404521).
  • DibencozideDibencozide: According to secondary sources, zidovudine (Combivir®) may reduce dibencozide levels.
  • MagnesiumMagnesium: Based on case reports, foscarnet (Foscavir®) may cause various electrolyte disturbances, including symptomatic hypomagnesemia due to chelation of magnesium and increased elimination (8384030, 11322251). Magnesium supplements may be required with foscarnet therapy.
  • Vitamin B12Vitamin B12: According to human study, reduced serum vitamin B12 levels may occur when zidovudine (AZT, Combivir®, Retrovir®) therapy is started and might contribute to other factors that cause low vitamin B12 levels in people with HIV and the hematological toxicity associated with zidovudine (7639277). However, it is unclear whether vitamin B12 supplements may be helpful for people taking zidovudine.
  • ZincZinc: According to secondary sources, antiretroviral drugs may deplete zinc levels.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (

The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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