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Dosage form

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Also listed as: Diet, Zone
Related terms
Background
Safety
Author information
Bibliography
Forms

Related Terms
  • Adequate protein diet, Barry Sears, carbohydrate, diet, fat, low carbohydrate diet, protein.

Background
  • The Zone diet is an unproven dietary regime, which has been popularized by Dr. Barry Sears through sales of his 1995 book, The Zone. Despite claims made in the book, there is little available research to support its overall benefit.
  • The Zone diet is a calorie-restricted diet that provides adequate protein, moderate levels of carbohydrates, essential fats and micronutrients spread through three meals and two snacks that approximately maintain the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio throughout the day.
  • Proponents believe that the Zone diet promotes optimal metabolic efficiency in the body by balancing the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin is responsible for converting, in the blood, incoming nutrients into cells. Glucagon regulates glucose in the liver. Overall, the Zone's food plan consists of a dietary intake of 40% carbohydrates, 30% protein and 30% fat.
  • Under this diet, recommended foods include fruits and vegetables (fresh or frozen), oatmeal (whole grain), protein powder (e.g. soybean isolate), chicken, turkey, lean beef, fish, low-fat cottage cheese, soy food, nuts (e.g. almonds, cashews, macademia, pistachios), extra virgin olive oil, natural sweeteners, such as fructose or stevia.

Safety




Author information
  • This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Cheuvront SN. The zone diet and athletic performance. Sports Med. 1999;27(4):213-228.
  2. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine.
  3. Sears B. The Zone Diet and athletic performance. Sports Med. 2000;29(4):289-294.

Forms
  • Aerosol: An aerosol drug is a medication that is packaged under pressure. It contains therapeutically active ingredients that are released upon activation of an appropriate valve system. It is intended to be applied directly onto the skin, into the nose (nasal aerosols), into the mouth (lingual aerosols), or into lungs (inhalation aerosols).
  • Aerosol, foam: An aerosol foam contains one or more active ingredients, surfactants, aqueous or nonaqueous liquids, and propellants. If the propellant is in the internal (discontinuous) phase (i.e., of the oil-in-water type), a stable foam is discharged. If the propellant is in the external (continuous) phase (i.e., of the water-in-oil type), a spray or a quick-breaking foam is discharged.
  • Aerosol, metered: This is a pressurized dosage form that consists of metered dose valves that allow for the delivery of a uniform quantity of spray upon each activation.
  • Aerosol, powder: This is an aerosol drug that contains therapeutically active ingredients in the form of a powder.
  • Aerosol spray: This is an aerosol product that uses a compressed gas as a propellant to provide the force necessary to expel the product as a wet spray. It is applicable to solutions of medicinal agents in aqueous solvents.
  • Bar, chewable: A chewable bar is a solid dosage form, usually in the form of a rectangle, that is meant to be chewed.
  • Bead: A bead is a solid dosage form that is in the shape of a small ball.
  • Bead, implant, extended release: This is a small sterile solid mass consisting of a highly purified drug that is implanted inside the body. This type of drug reduces the dosing frequency because it slowly releases the medication into the body over a period of time.
  • Block: A block is a solid dosage form that is usually in the shape of a square or rectangle.
  • Capsule: A capsule is a solid dosage form that is filled with a solid or liquid medication. The drug is enclosed inside a hard or soft soluble shell that is made from a suitable form of gelatin, starch, cellulose, or other suitable material.
  • Capsule, coated: This is a type of capsule that is covered in a special type of coating that makes swallowing easier.
  • Capsule, coated pellets: This type of capsule is covered in a special type of coating that makes swallowing easier. It also contains a drug that is in the form of granules. Varying amounts of coating are applied to these granules.
  • Capsule, coated, extended release: This type of capsule is covered in a special type of coating to make swallowing easier. It is also covered in another type of coating that slowly releases the drug (or drugs) over an extended period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency, as compared to that drug (or drugs) presented as a conventional dosage form.
  • Capsule, delayed release: This type of capsule does not release the drug (or drugs) right away. These capsules have enteric coatings that delay the release of the medication until the capsule has passed through the stomach and reached the intestines. This special coating protects the capsule from causing an upset stomach or from being destroyed or inactivated by the gastric juices in the stomach.
  • Capsule, delayed release pellets: This type of capsule contains a drug that is in the form of granules. An enteric coating has been applied to these granules, thus delaying release of the drug until it has passed into the intestines.
  • Capsule, extended release: This type of capsule is covered in a type of coating that slowly releases the drug (or drugs) over an extended period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency, as compared to that drug (or drugs) presented as a conventional dosage form.
  • Capsule, film coated, extended release: This type of capsule is covered in a designated film coating that releases the drug (or drugs) over an extended period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency, as compared to that drug (or drugs) presented as a conventional dosage form.
  • Capsule, gelatin coated: This type of capsule is coated with additional layers of gelatin in order to form a complete seal.
  • Capsule, liquid filled: In liquid-filled capsules, a liquid medication is enclosed inside a soluble, gelatin shell that is plasticized by the addition of a polyol, such as sorbitol or glycerin. This shell has a somewhat thicker consistency than that of a hard-shell capsule. Typically, the active ingredients are dissolved or suspended in a liquid vehicle.
  • Cement: Cement is a substance that serves to produce a solid union between two surfaces.
  • Cigarette: A cigarette is a narrow tube of cut tobacco (or other similar material, such as marijuana) that is enclosed in paper and designed for smoking. Cigarettes generally contain recreational drugs, not medicinal drugs. However, marijuana has been used to treat some types of medical conditions.
  • Cloth: A cloth is a large piece of relatively flat, absorbent material that contains a drug. It is typically used to apply a medication or to clean a wound.
  • Concentrate: This is a liquid preparation of increased strength and reduced volume that is usually diluted before it is given to the patient.
  • Cone: A cone is a solid dosage form that is bounded by a circular base and the surface formed by line segments joining every point of the boundary of the base to a common vertex. A cone, which usually contains antibiotics, is normally placed below the gingiva after a dental extraction.
  • Core, extended release: This is an ocular system that is placed in the eye. The drug diffuses through a membrane at a constant rate over a specified period of time.
  • Cream: A cream is an emulsion, semisolid dosage form that usually contains more than 20% water and volatiles and/or less than 50% hydrocarbons, waxes, or polyols as the vehicle. This dosage form is generally for external application to the skin or mucous membranes.
  • Cream, augmented: This is a cream dosage form that enhances drug delivery. Augmentation does not refer to the strength of the drug in the dosage form. The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) has decided not to expand the use of this dosage form due to difficulties in setting specific criteria that must be met for it to be considered "augmented."
  • Crystal: A crystal is a naturally produced angular solid of definite form. The ultimate units from which it is built up are systematically arranged. They are usually spaced evenly on a regular space lattice.
  • Culture: A culture refers to the propagation of microorganisms or of living tissue cells in special media that are conducive to their growth.
  • Diaphragm: A diaphragm is a device (usually dome-shaped) that is worn during sexual intercourse to help prevent conception and many types of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A female inserts a diaphragm into her vagina so that it covers the cervix.
  • Disc: A disc is a circular, plate-like organ or structure.
  • Douche: A douche is liquid preparation that is used to clean the inside of the vagina. A douche is prepared from powders, liquid solutions, or liquid concentrates. It contains one or more chemical substances that are dissolved in a suitable solvent or mutually miscible solvents. This cleansing fluid is flushed through the vagina.
  • Dressing: A dressing refers to the application of various materials in order to protect a wound.
  • Drug delivery system: A drug delivery system is a modern technology that is distributed with, or as a part of, a drug product. It allows for the uniform release or targeting of drugs to the body.
  • Elixir: An elixir is a clear, pleasantly flavored, sweetened, hydroalcoholic liquid that contains dissolved medications. It is taken by mouth.
  • Emulsion: An emulsion is a two-phase system that is comprised of at least two immiscible liquids. One liquid is dispersed as droplets (internal or dispersed phase) within the other liquid (external or continuous phase). An emulsion is usually stabilized with one or more emulsifying agents. Emulsion is used as a dosage form term unless a more specific term, such as cream or ointment, is applicable.
  • Enema: An enema is a rectal preparation for therapeutic, diagnostic, or nutritive purposes.
  • Extract: An extract is a concentrated preparation of vegetable or animal drugs. An extract is obtained by removing the active constituents of the respective drugs with a suitable menstrua, evaporation of all or nearly all of the solvent, and adjustment of the residual masses or powders to the prescribed standards.
  • Fiber, extended release: This is a long, slender, solid, thread-like substance that slowly releases the drug (or drugs) over an extended period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency, as compared to that drug (or drugs) presented as a conventional dosage form.
  • Film, extended release: This is a drug delivery system in the form of a film that releases a drug over an extended period of time in order to maintain constant drug levels in the blood or target tissue.
  • Film, soluble: A soluble film is a thin layer or coating that dissolves in liquid.
  • For solution: This is a product, usually a solid, that is incorporated into a solution before administration.
  • For suspension: This is a product, usually a solid, that is incorporated into a suspension before administration.
  • For suspension, extended release: This is a product (usually a solid) that is incorporated into a suspension before administration. Once the suspension is administered, the drug is released at a constant rate over an extended period of time in order to maintain constant drug levels in the body.
  • Gas: A gas is any elastic aeriform fluid in which the molecules are separated from one another and able to move freely.
  • Gel: A gel is a semisolid dosage form that contains a gelling agent in order to provide stiffness to a solution or a colloidal dispersion. Some gels contain suspended particles.
  • Gel, dentifrice: A dentifrice gel, or toothpaste, is a combination of a gel and a formulation that is meant to clean and/or polish the teeth. It is used with a toothbrush.
  • Gel, metered: This is a gel preparation that has metered dose valves. A metered gel allows for the delivery of a uniform quantity of gel upon each activation.
  • Generator: A generator is an apparatus that is used to form vapor or gas from a liquid or solid by heat or chemical action. The term, generator, also applies to radioactive columns from which radionuclides are provided.
  • Globule: A globule, also called pellets or pilules, is made of pure sucrose, lactose, or other polysaccharides. They are formed into small globular masses of various sizes, which are medicated by placing them in a vial and adding the liquid drug attenuation in the proportion not less than one percent (v/w). After shaking, the medicated globules are dried at temperatures that do not to exceed 40 degrees Centigrade. They are then administered orally.
  • Graft: A graft is a slip of skin or other tissue that is implanted in a patient.
  • Granule: A granule is a small particle or grain.
  • Granule, delayed release: This type of granule has an enteric or other type of coating that delays the release of the drug until it reaches the intestines.
  • Granule, effervescent: This type of granule contains a medicinal agent in a dry mixture (usually made of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, and tartaric acid). When the granule comes into contact with water, it is able to release gas, resulting in effervescence.
  • Granule, for solution: This type of granule is in its more stable, dry form. It is reconstituted with a solvent just before dispensing. In addition to the medicinal agent, the granules also contain the colorants, flavorants, and any other desired pharmaceutical ingredient.
  • Granule, for suspension: This type of granule is in its more stable dry form. It is reconstituted with a solvent just before dispensing to form a suspension. In addition to the medicinal agent, the granules also contain the colorants, flavorants, and any other desired pharmaceutical ingredient.
  • Granule, for suspension, extended release: This type of granule is in its more stable dry form. It is reconstituted with a solvent just before dispensing to form a suspension. The drug is slowly released at a constant rate for a prolonged period of time.
  • Gum: Gum is a mucilaginous excretion from various plants.
  • Gum, chewing: Chewing gum is a sweetened and flavored insoluble plastic material of various shapes. When medicinal gum is chewed, it releases a drug substance into the mouth.
  • Gum, resin: This is a natural mixture of gum and resin, usually obtained as exudations from plants.
  • Implant: An implant is a material that contains a drug that is intended to be inserted securely or deeply into a living site for growth, slow release, or the formation of an organic union.
  • Inhalant: This is a special class of inhalations that consist of a drug or combination of drugs, which by virtue of their high vapor pressure, can be carried by an air current into the nasal passage or trachea, where they exert their effects. The container from which the inhalant generally is administered is known as an inhaler.
  • Injectable, liposomal: This is an injection that either consists of or forms liposomes (a lipid bilayer vesicle that is usually composed of phospholipids, which is used to encapsulate an active drug substance).
  • Injection: An injection is a sterile preparation that is intended for parenteral use. There are five distinct classes of injections, according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP).
  • Injection, emulsion: This is an emulsion that consists of a sterile, pyrogen-free preparation and is intended to be administered parenterally.
  • Injection, powder, for solution: This is a sterile preparation that is reconstituted to form a solution for parenteral use.
  • Injection, powder, for suspension: This is a sterile preparation that is reconstituted to form a suspension for parenteral use.
  • Injection, powder, for suspension, extended release: This is a dried preparation that is reconstituted to form a suspension for parenteral use. The drug is formulated so that when it is injected, the medication is released at a constant rate for a prolonged period of time.
  • Injection, powder, lyophilized, for liposomal suspension: This is a sterile, freeze-dried preparation that is reconstituted for parenteral use. It has been formulated to allow liposomes to be formed upon reconstitution.
  • Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution: This is a sterile, freeze-dried preparation that is added to a liquid to form a solution. The solution is then injected.
  • Injection, powder, lyophilized for suspension: This is a sterile, freeze-dried preparation that contains solids, which are suspended in a suitable fluid medium. The suspension is then injected.
  • Injection, powder, lyophilized for suspension, extended release: This is a sterile, freeze-dried preparation that is reconstituted for parenteral use. It is formulated so that when it is injected, the medication is released at a constant rate for a prolonged period of time. As a result, there is a reduction in dosing frequency, as compared to that drug presented as a conventional dosage form (e.g., as a solution).
  • Injection, solution: This is a liquid preparation that contains one or more drug substances that have been dissolved in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. The solution is then injected into the patient.
  • Injection, solution, concentrate: This is a sterile preparation for parenteral use. Once suitable solvents are added, a solution is formed and injected into the patient.
  • Injection, suspension: This is a liquid preparation that is suitable for injection. It consists of solid, insoluble particles that are dispersed throughout a liquid phase. It can also consist of an oil phase dispersed throughout an aqueous phase, or vice-versa.
  • Injections, suspension, extended release: This is a sterile preparation that is intended for parenteral use. It is formulated so that when it is injected, the medication is released at a constant rate for a prolonged period of time. As a result, this allows for a reduction in dosing frequency, as compared to that drug presented as a conventional dosage form (e.g., as a solution or a prompt drug-releasing, conventional solid dosage form).
  • Injections, suspension, liposomal: This is a liquid preparation that is suitable for injection. It consists of an oil phase dispersed throughout an aqueous phase in such a manner that liposomes are formed.
  • Injection, suspension, sonicated: This is a liquid preparation that is suitable for injection. It consists of solid, insoluble particles that are dispersed throughout a liquid phase. In addition, the product is sonicated while a gas is bubbled through the suspension. This causes the solid particles to form microspheres.
  • Insert: An insert is a specially formulated and shaped solid preparation (e.g. ring, tablet, or stick) that is placed inside the body, where the drug is released. It is generally used for localized effects.
  • Insert, extended release: This is a specially formulated and shaped solid preparation (e.g., ring, tablet, or stick) that is placed inside the vagina by special inserters. The medication is released into the vagina at a constant rate over a prolonged period of time. This reduces the frequency of doses that are needed. Extended release inserts are generally used for localized effects.
  • Intrauterine device: An intrauterine device is inserted and left inside the uterus to help prevent conception.
  • Irrigant: An irrigant is a sterile solution that is used to bathe or flush open wounds or body cavities. These solutions are used topically, never parenterally.
  • Jelly: This is a class of gels that are semisolid systems. They consist of suspensions made up of either small inorganic particles or large organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid.
  • Kit: A kit is a packaged collection of related material
  • Liner, dental: A dental liner is a material that is applied to the inside of the dental cavity in order to protect or insulate the surface.
  • Liniment: A liniment is a solution or mixture of various substances in oil, alcoholic solutions of soap, or emulsions. It is intended for external topical application.
  • Lipstick: A lipstick is a waxy solid, usually colored cosmetic, in stick form for topical application to the lips.
  • Liquid: This is a dosage form that consists of a pure chemical in its liquid state. This dosage form term should not be applied to solutions.
  • Liquid, extended release: This is a liquid that delivers a drug at a constant rate over a prolonged period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency when compared to a conventional dosage form.
  • Lotion: A lotion is an emulsion, liquid dosage form. This dosage form is generally for external application to the skin.
  • Lotion, augmented: This type of lotion enhances the drug delivery. Augmentation does not refer to the strength of the drug in the dosage form.
  • Note: The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) has decided not to expand the use of this dosage form due to difficulties in setting specific criteria that must be met for it to be considered it "augmented."
  • Lotion/shampoo: This is a lotion dosage form that contains a soap or detergent. It is usually used to clean the hair and scalp. It is often used as a vehicle for dermatologic agents.
  • Lozenge: A lozenge is a solid preparation that contains one or more medications, usually in a flavored, sweetened base. It is intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth. A lollipop is a lozenge on a stick.
  • Mouthwash: A mouthwash is an aqueous solution that is most often used for its deodorant, refreshing, or antiseptic effect in the mouth.
  • Oil: An oil is an unctuous, combustible substance that is either a liquid or easily liquefiable when warmed. It is soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils.
  • Ointment: An ointment is a suspension or emulsion, semisolid dosage form. It usually contains less than 20% water and volatiles and more than 50% hydrocarbons, waxes, or polyols as the vehicle. This dosage form is generally applied topically to the skin or mucous membranes.
  • Ointment, augmented: This is an ointment dosage form that enhances drug delivery. Augmentation does not refer to the strength of the drug in the dosage form.
  • Note: The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) has decided not to expand the use of this dosage form due to difficulties in setting specific criteria that must be met to be considered it "augmented."
  • Packing: Packing is a material, usually covered by or impregnated with a drug that is inserted into a body cavity or between the tooth enamel and the gingival margin.
  • Paste: A paste is a semisolid dosage form that contains a large proportion (20-50%) of solids that are finely dispersed in a fatty vehicle. This dosage form is generally for external application to the skin or mucous membranes.
  • Paste, dentifrice: A dentifrice paste is a formulation that is meant to clean and/or polish the teeth. It may contain certain additional agents.
  • Pastille: A pastille is an aromatic preparation that often has a pleasing flavor. It is usually intended to dissolve in the mouth.
  • Patch: A patch is a drug delivery system that often contains an adhesive backing that is usually applied to an external site on the body. Its ingredients either passively diffuse from, or are actively transported from, some portion of the patch. Depending on the type of patch, the ingredients are either delivered to the outer surface of the body or into the body. A patch is sometimes synonymous with the terms "extended release film" and "system."
  • Patch, extended release: This type of patch releases the drug at a constant rate over an extended period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency when compared to that drug presented as a conventional dosage form (e.g., a solution or a prompt drug-releasing, conventional solid dosage form).
  • Patch, extended release, electrically controlled: This type of patch is controlled by an electric current that releases the drug at a constant rate over an extended period of time.
  • Pellet: A pellet is a small, sterile, solid mass that consists of a highly purified drug (with or without excipients). Pellets are made by the formation of granules or by compression and molding.
  • Pellet, implantable: This type of pellet is implanted in the body (usually subcutaneously) for the purpose of providing continuous release of the drug over long periods of time.
  • Pellets, coated, extended release: This is a solid dosage form in which the drug itself is in the form of granules. Varying amounts of coating have been applied to these granules, which allow the drug to be released at a constant rate over an extended period of time. This allows for a reducing in dosing frequency when compared to that drug (or drugs) presented as a conventional dosage form.
  • Pill: A pill is a small, round, solid dosage form that contains a medicinal agent. It is taken by mouth.
  • Plaster: Plaster is a substance that adheres to the skin and attaches to a dressing. Plasters help protect, support, and/or to furnish occlusions and macerating actions. They also bring medications into close contact with the skin.
  • Poultice: A poultice is a soft, moist mass of meal, herbs, seed, etc., that is usually applied topically in a hot in cloth that has a gruel-like consistency.
  • Powder: A powder is an intimate mixture of dry, finely divided drugs and/or chemicals that may be intended for internal or external use.
  • Powder, dentifrice: This type of powder is used to clean and/or polish the teeth. It may contain certain additional agents.
  • Powder, for solution: This type of powder is added to suitable vehicles in order to produce a solution.
  • Powder, for suspension: This type of powder is added to suitable vehicles in order to produce a suspension, which is a liquid preparation that contains the solid particles dispersed in the liquid.
  • Powder, metered: This type of powder is situated inside a container that has a mechanism to deliver a specified quantity.
  • Ring: A ring is a small circular object that has a vacant circular center. A ring is usually intended to be placed inside the body with special inserters. Once inside the body, it releases a medication. It usually produces localized effects.
  • Rinse: A rinse is a liquid that is used to cleanse by flushing.
  • Salve: A salve is a thick ointment or cerate (a fat or wax-based preparation with a consistency between an ointment and a plaster). It is applied topically to the skin.
  • Shampoo: A shampoo is a liquid soap or detergent that is used to clean the hair and scalp. It is often used as a vehicle for dermatologic agents.
  • Shampoo, suspension: This is a liquid soap or detergent that contains one or more solid, insoluble substances. It is used to clean the hair and scalp. It is often used as a vehicle for dermatologic agents.
  • Soap: Soap is any compound of one or more fatty acids, or their equivalents, with an alkali. Soap is a detergent, and it is often employed in liniments, enemas, and in making pills. It is also a mild aperient, antacid, and antiseptic.
  • Solution: A solution is a clear, homogeneous liquid dosage form that contains one or more chemical substances dissolved in a solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents.
  • Solution, concentrate: This is a liquid preparation that contains a drug that is dissolved in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. The drug has been strengthened by the evaporation of its inactive parts
  • Solution, for slush: This is a solution that is used for the preparation of an iced saline slush, which is administered by irrigation. It is applied to induce regional hypothermia during procedures, such as open heart surgery or kidney surgeries.
  • Solution, gel forming/drops: This is a solution, which after usually being administered in a drop-wise fashion, forms a gel.
  • Solution, gel forming, extended release: This gel-forming solution releases medicinal agents at a constant rate for an extended time period. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency.
  • Solution/drops: This is a solution that is usually administered in a drop-wise fashion.
  • Sponge: This is a porous, interlacing, absorbent material that contains a drug. It is typically used to cleanse a wound or to apply or introduce a medication. A sponge usually retains its shape.
  • Spray: A spray is a liquid that is minutely divided by a jet of air or steam.
  • Spray, metered: This is a non-pressurized dosage form that consists of valves that allow the dispensing of a specified quantity of spray upon each activation.
  • Spray, suspension: This is a liquid preparation that contains solid, insoluble particles that are dispersed in a liquid vehicle. These solid particles are in the form of coarse droplets or as finely divided solids. A suspension spray is applied locally, usually to the nasal-pharyngeal tract, or topically to the skin.
  • Stick: A stick is a dosage form that is prepared in a relatively long and slender, often cylindrical, form.
  • Strip: A strip is a long, narrow piece of material.
  • Suppository: A suppository is a solid body of various weights and shapes, adapted for introduction into the rectum, vagina, or urethra of the human body. They usually melt, soften, or dissolve at body temperature.
  • Suppository, extended release: This type of suppository releases the drug at a constant rate over an extended period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency.
  • Suspension: A suspension is a liquid dosage form that contains solid particles that are dispersed in a liquid vehicle.
  • Suspension, extended release: This is a type of suspension that releases a drug at a constant rate over an extended period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency when compared to that drug presented as a conventional dosage form .
  • Suspension/drops: This is a suspension that is usually administered in a drop-wise fashion.
  • Suture: A suture is a strand or fiber that is used to hold wound edges in apposition during healing.
  • Swab: A swab is a small piece of relatively flat, absorbent material that contains a drug. A swab may also be attached to one or both ends of a small stick. A swab is typically used to apply medication or to cleanse a wound.
  • Syrup: A syrup is an oral solution that contains high concentrations of sucrose or other sugars. The term has also been used to include any other liquid dosage form that is prepared in a sweet and viscid vehicle, including oral suspensions.
  • Tablet: A tablet is a solid dosage form that contains medicinal substances with or without suitable diluents.
  • Tablet, chewable: This type of tablet is designed to be chewed. It produces a pleasant tasting residue in the mouth that is easily swallowed, and it does not leave a bitter or unpleasant after-taste.
  • Tablet, coated: This type of tablet is covered with a specially designed coating.
  • Tablet, coated particles: This type of tablet contains a conglomerate of medicinal particles that have each been covered with a coating.
  • Tablet, delayed release: This type of tablet is designed delay the release of the medication until the tablet has passed through the stomach and reached the intestines.
  • Tablet, delayed release particles: This type of tablet contains a conglomerate of medicinal particles that have each been covered with a coating. This special coating delays the release of the medication until the tablet has passed through the stomach and reached the intestines. Enteric-coated articles are delayed release dosage forms.
  • Tablet, effervescent: This is a solid dosage form that contains mixtures of acids (e.g., citric acid or tartaric acid) and sodium bicarbonate, which release carbon dioxide when dissolved in water. An effervescent tablet is dissolved or dispersed in water before taking by mouth.
  • Tablet, extended release: This type of tablet is designed to release the drug at a constant rate over an extended period of time. This allows for a reduction in dosing frequency when compared to that drug presented in conventional dosage form.
  • Tablet, film coated: This type of tablet is coated with a thin layer of a water-insoluble or water-soluble polymer. This film makes swallowing easier and improves taste of the medication.
  • Tablet, film coated, extended release: This type of tablet is coated with a thin layer of a water-insoluble or water-soluble polymer in order to make swallowing easier and improve taste. In addition, the drug is released at a constant rate over an extended period of time in order to reduce dosing frequency.
  • Tablet, for solution: This is a tablet that forms a solution when placed in a liquid.
  • Tablet, for suspension: This is a tablet that forms a suspension when it is placed in a liquid. This was formerly called a "dispersible tablet."
  • Tablet, multilayer: This is a solid dosage form that contains medicinal substances that have been compressed to form a multiple-layered tablet or a tablet-within-a-tablet (the inner tablet being the core and the outer portion being the shell).
  • Tablet, multilayer, extended release: This is a solid dosage form that contains medicinal substances that have been compressed to form a multiple-layered tablet or a tablet-within-a-tablet. The outer portion (called the shell) is covered in a designated coating. The tablet is formulated so that the drug is released at a constant rate over an extended period of time.
  • Tablet, orally disintegrating: This is a solid dosage form that contains medicinal substances. The tablet disintegrates rapidly, usually within a matter of seconds, when it is placed on the tongue.
  • Tablet, orally disintegrating, delayed release: This is a solid dosage form that contains medicinal substances. The tablet disintegrates rapidly, usually within a matter of seconds, when it is placed on the tongue. The drug (or drugs) is released at a time other than promptly after administration.
  • Tablet, soluble: This type of tablet is dissolved in fluids.
  • Tablet, sugar coated: This type of tablet is coated with a colored or an uncolored water-soluble sugar.
  • Tampon: A tampon is a plug made of cotton, sponge, or oakum. It may be used during surgery to plug the nose, vagina, etc., and control bleeding or to absorb bodily secretions.
  • Tape: Tape is a narrow, woven fabric, or a narrow extruded synthetic (such as plastic), that typically has an adhesive on one or both sides.
  • Tincture: A tincture is an alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution that is prepared from vegetable materials or from chemical substances.
  • Troche: A troche is a discoid-shaped solid that contains the medicinal agent in a suitably flavored base. Troches are placed in the mouth where they slowly dissolve, liberating the active ingredients. A troche is a compressed lozenge.
  • Wafer: A wafer is a thin slice of material that contains a medicinal agent.

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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