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Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)



Interactions

Wormwood/Drug Interactions:
  • AlcoholAlcohol: In human research, high concentrations of thujone, a constituent of absinthe, in alcohol negatively impacted attention to peripheral visual fields and counteracted the alcohol's reduction in anxiety (29).
  • Antiangiogenic drugsAntiangiogenic drugs: In laboratory research, Artemisia annua was shown to inhibit angiogenesis (30; 31).
  • Antiarrhythmic agentsAntiarrhythmic agents: Bradyarrhythmias developed in a comatose patient with severe absinthe intoxication (12).
  • Anti-inflammatory agentsAnti-inflammatory agents: In clinical research, wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) was shown to have a steroid-sparing effect in Crohn's disease (32).
  • Antimalarial agentsAntimalarial agents: In human research, annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) improved cure rates in patients with malaria (24).
  • AntimicrobialsAntimicrobials: In vitro studies showed that essential oils from Artemisia afra may have antimicrobial activities and may be useful in preserving foods and cosmetics (11).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Artemisia annua has shown anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo, such as cytotoxic effects against tumor cells and inhibition of angiogenesis (30; 33; 31).
  • Butyric acidButyric acid: In in vitro research, the addition of butyric acid synergistically increased the effectiveness of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a constituent of wormwood, in inducing apoptosis in T lymphoblasts (p<0.001) (33).
  • CannabinoidsCannabinoids: In in vitro research, thujone derived from wormwood displaced [3H]CP55940, a cannabinoid agonist, from the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (34).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized agentsCytochrome P450-metabolized agents: In animal and in vitro research, alpha- and beta-thujones, constituents of absinthe, were metabolized by the P450 systems (8).
  • Drugs that affect GABADrugs that affect GABA: In invitro research, alpha- and beta-thujones were shown to be noncompetitive blockers of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (8; 35). According to a review, thujone interacted with GABA receptors and had an excitatory effect on the central nervous system (36). According to a review, the wormwood derivative absinthe has been shown to inhibit GABAergic neurons (1).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: According to secondary sources, wormwood should not be taken by mouth because of many possible adverse effects, including abdominal cramps, drooling, and vomiting.
  • Hematological agentsHematological agents: In vitro, thujone produced an increase in porphyrin production in primary cultures of chick embryo liver cells (37).
  • Hormonal agentsHormonal agents: In vitro studies showed that artemisinin downregulated estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, but not ER-beta, in the estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell line MCF7 and that its effectiveness enhanced that of fulvestrant (38). The overall survival rate of cells was not reported.
  • ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants: In an in vitro study of the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2, an aqueous extract of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. inhibited the secretion of ethanol-induced interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the cytotoxicities and apoptosis that they induce (39).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In an in vitro study of the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2, an aqueous extract of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. inhibited the secretion of ethanol-induced interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the cytotoxicities and apoptosis that they induce (39).
  • Nephrotoxic agentsNephrotoxic agents: According to case report data, a man who drank about 10mL of oil of Artemisia absinthium developed kidney failure, which resolved in a few days after he stopped ingesting the oil (13).
  • Neurologic agentsNeurologic agents: In invitro research, alpha- and beta-thujones were shown to be noncompetitive blockers of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (8; 35). According to a review, thujone interacted with GABA receptors and had an excitatory effect on the central nervous system (36). According to a review, the wormwood derivative absinthe has been shown to inhibit GABAergic neurons (1). Ingestion of 10mL of the essential oil of wormwood produced incomprehensibility, seizures, and violent behavior that resolved after the patient was given haloperidol (13). According to secondary sources, wormwood should not be taken by mouth because of many possible adverse effects, including dizziness and insomnia.
  • Serotonin receptor antagonistsSerotonin receptor antagonists: In vitro, alpha-thujone inhibited a serotonergic 5-HT3 receptor (40).
  • Skeletal muscle relaxantsSkeletal muscle relaxants: Based on a case report, ingestion of 10mL of Artemisia absinthium essential oil led to muscle deterioration; the condition resolved within a few days (13).

Wormwood/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • Antiangiogenic herbsAntiangiogenic herbs: In laboratory research, Artemisia annua was shown to inhibit angiogenesis (30; 31).
  • AntiarrhythmicsAntiarrhythmics: Bradyarrhythmias developed in a comatose patient with severe absinthe intoxication (12).
  • Anti-inflammatory herbs and supplementsAnti-inflammatory herbs and supplements: In clinical research, wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) was shown to have a steroid-sparing effect in Crohn's disease (32).
  • Antimalarial herbs and supplementsAntimalarial herbs and supplements: In human research, annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) improved cure rates in patients with malaria (24).
  • AntimicrobialsAntimicrobials: In vitro studies showed that essential oils from Artemisia afra may have antimicrobial activities and may be useful in preserving foods and cosmetics (11).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Artemisia annua has shown anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo, such as cytotoxic effects against tumor cells and inhibition of angiogenesis (30; 33; 31).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: In in vitro research, the essential oils of wormwood inhibited LDL oxidation and upregulated the LDL receptor, especially when incubated with vitamin E (41).
  • CannabinoidsCannabinoids: In in vitro research, thujone derived from wormwood displaced [3H]CP55940, a cannabinoid agonist, from the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (34).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized herbs and supplementsCytochrome P450-metabolized herbs and supplements: In animal and in vitro research, alpha- and beta-thujones, constituents of absinthe, were metabolized by the P450 systems (8).
  • Gastrointestinal herbs and supplementsGastrointestinal herbs and supplements: According to secondary sources, wormwood should not be taken by mouth because of many possible adverse effects, including abdominal cramps, drooling, and vomiting.
  • Hematological herbs and supplementsHematological herbs and supplements: In vitro, thujone produced an increase in porphyrin production in primary cultures of chick embryo liver cells (37).
  • Herbs and supplements that affect GABAHerbs and supplements that affect GABA: In invitro research, alpha- and beta-thujones were shown to be noncompetitive blockers of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (8; 35). According to a review, thujone interacted with GABA receptors and had an excitatory effect on the central nervous system (36). According to a review, the wormwood derivative absinthe has been shown to inhibit GABAergic neurons (1).
  • Hormonal herbs and supplementsHormonal herbs and supplements: In vitro studies showed that artemisinin downregulated estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, but not ER-beta, in the estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell line MCF7, and that its effectiveness enhanced that of fulvestrant (38). The overall survival of cells in the cell line was not reported.
  • ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants: In an in vitro study on the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2, an aqueous extract of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. inhibited the secretion of ethanol-induced interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the cytotoxicities and apoptosis that they induce (39).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In an in vitro study on the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2, an aqueous extract of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. inhibited the secretion of ethanol-induced interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the cytotoxicities and apoptosis that they induce (39).
  • Nephrotoxic agentsNephrotoxic agents: According to case report data, a man who drank about 10mL of oil of Artemisia absinthium developed kidney failure, which resolved in a few days after he stopped ingesting the oil (13).
  • Neurologic herbs and supplementsNeurologic herbs and supplements: In invitro research, alpha- and beta-thujones were shown to be noncompetitive blockers of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (8; 35). According to a review, thujone interacted with GABA receptors and had an excitatory effect on the central nervous system (36). According to a review, the wormwood derivative absinthe has been shown to inhibit GABAergic neurons (1). Ingestion of 10mL of the essential oil of wormwood produced incomprehensibility, seizures, and violent behavior that resolved after the patient was given haloperidol (13). According to secondary sources, wormwood should not be taken by mouth because of many possible adverse effects, including dizziness and insomnia.
  • Serotonin receptor antagonistsSerotonin receptor antagonists: In in vitro research, alpha-thujone inhibited a serotonergic 5-HT3 receptor (40).
  • Skeletal muscle relaxantsSkeletal muscle relaxants: Based on a case report, ingestion of 10mL of Artemisia absinthium essential oil led to muscle deterioration; the condition resolved within a few days (13).
  • Vitamin EVitamin E: In in vitro research, the essential oils of wormwood inhibited LDL oxidation and upregulated the LDL receptor, especially when incubated with vitamin E (41).

Wormwood/Food Interactions:
  • Insufficient available evidence.

Wormwood/Lab Interactions:
  • Insufficient available evidence.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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