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Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus)



Interactions

Astragalus/Drug Interactions:
  • GeneralGeneral: In theory, consumption of the tragacanth (gummy sap derived from astragalus) may reduce absorption of agents taken by mouth. Therefore, tragacanth and other agents should be taken at separate times.
  • AnestheticsAnesthetics: According to secondary sources, astragalus may have negative effects on anesthesia.
  • Angiogenic agentsAngiogenic agents: In vitro, astragaloside IV increased cell proliferation and stimulated HIF-1alpha accumulation in hypoxia-treated HUVEC cells (221).
  • AntiadrenergicsAntiadrenergics: In animal research, 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, displayed negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which appears to be related to inhibition of beta-adrenergic-mediated responses (142).
  • Antiaging agentsAntiaging agents: In vitro, nonfermented preparations of radix Astragali demonstrated greater growth-stimulating effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro compared to a nonfermented formulation (72).
  • Antianxiety agentsAntianxiety agents: In rats, Astragalus membranaceus significantly reduced stress-induced deficits on learning and memory on the spatial memory tasks and increased cholineacetyl transferase immunoreactivity (73). Furthermore, Astragalus membranaceus increased the amount of time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze and normalized increases of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain.
  • AntiarthriticsAntiarthritics: In vitro, formononetin, a phytoestrogen isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenic protein-2, osteocalcin, and type I collagen in osteoarthritis subchondral osteoblasts, while in normal human osteoblasts, marked increases in alkaline phosphatase activity, vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenic protein-2, osteocalcin, and type I collagen were observed (65).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: According to animal evidence, Astragalus polysaccharide fractions may induce immune responses against bacterial infections (222; 116; 223) and sepsis induced by cecal ligation (224).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In human research, astragalosides had increased fibrinolysis (108; 132; 133) and theoretically may increase the risk of bleeding. Although between-group differences in the number and severity of adverse effects were lacking, adverse effects experienced in the astragalus group included gastrointestinal bleeding (134).
  • AnticonvulsantsAnticonvulsants: In animal research, Astragalus mongholicus extract protected against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice with concurrent inhibition on PTZ-induced increases in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and reactive oxygen species, and enhanced mitochondrial function (37). Astragalus mongholicus extract also protected against malondialdehyde-induced oxidative damage. Another study examined the ability of Astragalus mongholicus extract to reduce convulsions (16). Additional details are lacking.
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: In animal and human research, astragalus lowered blood glucose (135; 136; 137; 138; 139; 140; 141) and altered insulin sensitivity (225; 226).
  • AntihypertensivesAntihypertensives: In animal and human research, astragalus lowered blood pressure (142; 143; 144; 136; 145). At higher doses, astragalus may increase blood pressure (145).
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: Astragalus has been shown to affect various biochemical signals involved in the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo (227; 228; 229; 230; 231; 42; 232; 233; 234; 47).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In human research, multi-ingredient formulas containing astragalus decreased total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides, and increased HDL (137; 235; 96).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: There is in vitro evidence that astragalus may potentiate the efficacy and reduce adverse effects of chemotherapy via stimulation of immune function (236; 237; 40; 238; 239). According to human research, astragalus-based formulas may enhance the effects of platinum-based chemotherapy (240). In human research, astragalus decreased adverse (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) and toxic (white blood cells, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine) effects associated with chemotherapy (186).
  • Antiobesity agentsAntiobesity agents: In food-induced obese rats, radix Astragali lowered triglyceride and free fat acid levels and induced a decrease in celiac fat (241). In obese rats, Astragalus membranaceus reduced fat tissue due to a high-fat diet (242). Ex vivo, Astragalus membranaceus significantly increased the maximum end-diastolic volume of aortic rings obtained from the obese group.
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: In animal research, Astragalus membranaceus lowered viral load and inhibited viral replication of coxsackievirus B3 in mice heart tissue (243; 244; 245; 204; 115). Astragalus polysaccharide fractions have also been reported to stimulate the production of IgA, IgM, IgG, and antigen-specific splenocytes in response to bacterial infections in poultry (222; 116; 223). In contrast, astragalus exhibited no in vitro cytotoxic or antiviral activity against HIV infection (246; 247).
  • Athletic performance enhancersAthletic performance enhancers: According to preliminary research, the astragalus-containing combination formula Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (containing radix Paeoniae [peony root], rhizoma Zingiberis [ginger rhizome], Saccharum granorum (barley malt sugar), fructus Ziziphi [jujube dates], radix Glycyrrhizae [licorice root], cortex Cinnamomi [cassia bark], and radix Astragali [astragalus root]) reduced fatigue and increased anaerobic threshold (248). However, there is currently a lack of clinical trials investigating the effects of astragalus alone.
  • Beta-blockersBeta-blockers: In animal research, 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, displayed negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which appears to be related to inhibition of beta-adrenergic-mediated responses (142). Theoretically, concurrent use of astragalus and beta-blockers may have additive effects.
  • Cardiovascular agentsCardiovascular agents: In a clinical trial, palpitations were thought to be the result of rapid intravenous dripping of astragalus (157). In patients with heart failure, astragalus improved heart function in patients also treated with standard therapy (182).
  • CNS stimulantsCNS stimulants: According to secondary sources, astragalus may potentiate the stimulant effects of central nervous system (CNS) stimulants.
  • ColchicineColchicine: According to secondary sources, colchicine may increase the effects of astragalus.
  • CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide: According to animal evidence, astragalus reduced the immunosuppressive effects of cyclophosphamide (143; 109; 249). According to human evidence, astragalus injection together with cyclophosphamide was more effective than cyclophosphamide alone in decreasing infection and urine protein and improving immune function in patients with lupus nephritis (201).
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: In human research, although between-group differences in the number and severity of adverse effects were lacking, adverse effects experienced in the astragalus group included rash, eczema, and pruritus (134). Facial flushing (158) and itching (159) have also been reported in clinical trials.
  • DiureticsDiuretics: In human and animal research, astragalus had diuretic properties (146; 147; 148). Theoretically, concomitant use of astragalus with diuretics may have additive effects.
  • Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): During cryoprotection of human hepatocytes, Astragalus membranaceus extraction (AE) reduced the required dosage of DMSO (250).
  • Dopamine agonistsDopamine agonists: According to animal research, long-term exposure to 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, may activate the dopaminergic system and result in neurotoxicity (149).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: In research in rats, Astragalus membranaceus, administered both orally and intracolonically, protected against 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis, as evidenced by decreased colonic lesion area and histological damage score and by a decrease in observed elevations of colonic myeloperoxidase activity (57). The most commonly reported adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, and other mild gastrointestinal effects (160; 161; 162; 158).
  • Growth hormoneGrowth hormone: According to laboratory evidence, astragalus may increase growth hormone levels (150).
  • Hematological agentsHematological agents: In animal research, a combination of radix Astragali (AMW) and radix Angelicae (AGW) in cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced anemic rats enhanced blood cell numbers (red and white blood cells) (251).
  • HepatotoxinsHepatotoxins: In animal research, astragalus has been shown to exert hepatoprotective effects (252; 253; 254; 255).
  • Hormonal agentsHormonal agents: In vitro, sperm motility and viability have been shown to significantly increase in healthy rats and men (256). In rats, astragalus has also been reported to inhibit decrements in sperm production and motility caused by cadmium exposure (257). Liu et al. recently reported that astragalus extract significantly increased in vitro sperm motility and viability in 30 infertile men (61). An ethanol extract (70%) of Astragalus membranaceus exhibited estrogenic activity (estrogenic relative potency of 8.47 x 10-5) (258).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In human and animal research, astragalus appeared to stimulate the immune system (108; 109; 110; 111; 112; 113; 114; 115; 116; 117; 118; 119; 120; 121; 122; 123; 124; 125; 126; 113; 127; 128; 129; 130; 131).
  • InotropesInotropes: In animal research, 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, displayed negative inotropic effects (142).
  • InterferonsInterferons: The effects of interferon have been potentiated by astragalus (151; 56; 152; 153; 154; 55).
  • IronIron: In a clinical trial of Astragalus-containing mixtures, in children with beta-thalassemia intermedia, mean levels of hemoglobin increased after treatment (259).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: In a clinical trial of Bombyx batryticatus 10g, cicada slough 10g, curcuma 10g, rhubarb 3g, radix Astragalus 10g, radix Ophiopogonis 10g, red ginseng 10g, peony 10g, walnut kernel 10g, and safflower 10g, bowel movements were reduced (260).
  • NalbuphineNalbuphine: According to secondary sources, astragalus may have negative effects on nalbuphine.
  • Neuromuscular blockersNeuromuscular blockers: According to secondary sources, astragalus may increase the effects of neuromuscular blockers.
  • Neurologic agentsNeurologic agents: In vitro, astragaloside IV (AS-IV), extracted from the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus, prevented 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in primary nigral culture and resulted in an increase in tyrosine hydrolase (TH)-immunopositive cells from 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (69). Furthermore, AS-IV treatment increased the level of TH and nitrite oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivities.
  • Osteoporosis agentsOsteoporosis agents: In vitro, F1, an herbal extract obtained from Astragalus membranaceus, and its main ingredient, 1-monolinolein, did not increase cell proliferation or alkaline phosphatase activity in Saos-2 cell lines; F1 inhibited osteoclast development (66). In vivo, in ovariectomized rats, F1 increased trabecular bone area of the tibia.
  • ProcarbazineProcarbazine: According to secondary sources, astragalus may potentiate the adverse effects associated with procarbazine.
  • PropoxyphenePropoxyphene: According to secondary sources, astragalus may potentiate the effects of propoxyphene.
  • Radioprotective agentsRadioprotective agents: In vitro, astragalus has been reported to protect against radiation injury (261), and it may potentiate the effects of radioprotective agents.
  • Renoprotective agentsRenoprotective agents: In human research, astragalus injection improved levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, and urinary levels of NAG following cardiopulmonary bypass in infants with congenital heart disease (N=40) (262),
  • SedativesSedatives: According to secondary sources, sedatives may reduce the effects of astragalus.
  • SteroidsSteroids: Astragalus contains triterpenoids and saponins. Because triterpenoids and saponins have a structural similarity to steroid hormone precursors, astragalus may alter the effects of steroids.
  • VaccinesVaccines: In chickens, Astragalus polysaccharide and oxymatrine have been shown to synergistically improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine, as evidenced by increased lymphocyte proliferation, antibody titers, and IL-2 concentrations (263).
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: Formononetin, an isoflavone/phytoestrogen found abundantly in Astragalusmongholicus Bunge, in combination with genistein, daidzein, and biochanin A, relaxed phenylephrine-preconstricted aorta ex vivo (155). Mechanical removal of endothelium, L-NAME, and methylene blue suppressed formononetin-induced relaxation. Furthermore, formononetin increased endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), but not inducible NO synthase, activity with an upregulation of eNOS mRNA and p-eNOS (Ser1177) protein expression.

Astragalus/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • GeneralGeneral: In theory, the consumption of the tragacanth (gummy sap derived from astragalus) may reduce the absorption of agents taken by mouth. Therefore, tragacanth and other agents should be taken at separate times.
  • AnestheticsAnesthetics: According to secondary sources, astragalus may have negative effects on anesthesia.
  • Angiogenic agentsAngiogenic agents: In vitro, astragaloside IV increased cell proliferation and stimulated HIF-1alpha accumulation in hypoxia-treated HUVEC cells (221).
  • AntiadrenergicsAntiadrenergics: In animal research, 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, displayed negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which appears to be related to inhibition of beta-adrenergic-mediated responses (142).
  • Antiaging agentsAntiaging agents: In vitro, nonfermented preparations of radix Astragali demonstrated greater growth-stimulating effects on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro compared to a nonfermented formulation (72).
  • AntiarthriticsAntiarthritics: In vitro, formononetin, a phytoestrogen isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenic protein-2, osteocalcin, and type I collagen in osteoarthritis subchondral osteoblasts, while in normal human osteoblasts, marked increases in alkaline phosphatase activity, vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenic protein-2, osteocalcin, and type I collagen were observed (65).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: According to animal research, Astragalus polysaccharide fractions may induce immune responses against bacterial infections (222; 116; 223) and sepsis induced by cecal ligation (224).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Astragalosides may increase fibrinolysis (108; 132; 133) and theoretically may increase the risk of bleeding. In human research, although between-group differences in the number and severity of adverse effects were lacking, adverse effects experienced in the astragalus group included gastrointestinal bleeding (134).
  • AnticonvulsantsAnticonvulsants: In animal research, Astragalus mongholicus extract protected against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice, with concurrent inhibition of PTZ-induced increases in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and reactive oxygen species, and enhanced mitochondrial function (37). Astragalus mongholicus extract also protected against malondialdehyde-induced oxidative damage. Another study examined the ability of Astragalus mongholicus extract to reduce convulsions (16). Additional details are lacking.
  • Anti-inflammatoriesAnti-inflammatories: Astragalus has been shown to affect various biochemical signals involved in the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo (227; 228; 229; 230; 231; 42; 232; 233; 234; 47).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In human research, multi-ingredient formulas containing astragalus decreased total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides, and increased HDL (137; 235; 96).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: There is in vitro evidence that astragalus may potentiate the efficacy and reduce adverse effects of chemotherapy via stimulation of immune function (236; 237; 40; 238; 239). According to human research, astragalus-based formulas may enhance the effects of platinum-based chemotherapy (240). In human research, astragalus decreased adverse (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) and toxic (white blood cells, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine) effects associated with chemotherapy (186).
  • Antiobesity agentsAntiobesity agents: In food-induced obese rats, radix Astragali lowered triglyceride and free fat acid levels and induced a decrease in celiac fat (241). In obese rats, Astragalus membranaceus reduced fat tissue due to a high-fat diet (242). Ex vivo, Astragalus membranaceus significantly increased the maximum end-diastolic volume of aortic rings obtained from the obese group.
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Astragalus constituents, particularly the flavonoids, exerted significant cellular antioxidant effects that appeared to be protective against cardiovascular, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal pathological changes (264; 265; 49; 15; 266). In vitro, astragalus has been reported to protect against free radical-mediated renal tubular damage induced by high-energy shock waves (267; 91) and against radiation injury (261). In the hearts of healthy animals and animal models of cardiovascular disease, Astragalus polysaccharide and flavonoid fractions have been reported to scavenge mitochondrial free radicals, protect against lipid peroxidation, protect mitochondria from isoproterenol-induced injury, prevent diabetes-induced myocardial hypertrophy, attenuate pathophysiological decrements in cardiac structure and function in congestive heart failure diabetes, and protect against homocysteine-induced impairment of vascular tone and experimental hypertension (268; 269; 270; 208; 271; 272; 273; 274).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: Astragalus membranaceus lowered viral load and inhibited viral replication of coxsackievirus B3 in mice heart tissue (243; 244; 245; 204; 115). Astragalus polysaccharide fractions have also been reported to stimulate the production of IgA, IgM, IgG, and antigen-specific splenocytes in response to bacterial infections in poultry (222; 116; 223). In contrast, astragalus exhibited no in vitro cytotoxic or antiviral activity against HIV infection (246; 247).
  • Athletic performance enhancersAthletic performance enhancers: According to preliminary research, the astragalus-containing combination formula Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (containing radix Paeoniae [peony root], rhizoma Zingiberis [ginger rhizome], Saccharum granorum (barley malt sugar), fructus Ziziphi [jujube dates], radix Glycyrrhizae [licorice root], cortex Cinnamomi [cassia bark], and radix Astragali [astragalus root]) reduced fatigue and increased anaerobic threshold (248). However, there is currently a lack of clinical trials investigating the effects of astragalus alone.
  • Cardiovascular agentsCardiovascular agents: According to expert opinion, the addition of radix Astragali to the herbal remedy Sheng Mai Yin may synergistically treat ventricular, atrial, and nodal arrhythmia (275). In a clinical trial, palpitations were thought to be the result of rapid intravenous dripping of astragalus (157). Astragalus improved heart function in patients with heart failure also treated with standard therapy (182).
  • ChronotropicsChronotropics: In animal research, 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, displayed negative chronotropic effects, which appears to be related to inhibition of beta-adrenergic mediated responses (142).
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: Although between-group differences in the number and severity of adverse effects were lacking, adverse effects experienced in the astragalus group included rash, eczema, and pruritus (134). Facial flushing (158) and itching (159) have also been reported in clinical trials.
  • Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): During cryoprotection of human hepatocytes, Astragalus membranaceus extraction (AE) reduced the required dosage of DMSO (250).
  • DiureticsDiuretics: In human and animal research, astragalus had diuretic properties (146; 147; 148). Theoretically, concomitant use of astragalus with diuretics may have additive effects.
  • Dopamine agonistsDopamine agonists: According to animal research, long-term exposure to 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, may activate the dopaminergic system and result in neurotoxicity (149).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: In research in rats, Astragalus membranaceus, administered both orally and intracolonically, protected against 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis, as evidenced by decreased colonic lesion area and histological damage score and by a decrease in observed elevations of colonic myeloperoxidase activity (57). The most commonly reported adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, and other mild gastrointestinal effects (160; 161; 162; 158).
  • HematologicsHematologics: In animal research, a combination of radix Astragali (AMW) and radix Angelicae (AGW) in cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced anemic rats enhanced blood cell numbers (red and white blood cells) (251).
  • HepatotoxinsHepatotoxins: In animal research, astragalus has been shown to exert hepatoprotective effects (252; 253; 254; 255).
  • Hormonal agentsHormonal agents: Astragalus also contains triterpenoids and saponins. Triterpenoids and saponins have a structural similarity to steroid hormone precursors. In vitro, sperm motility and viability have been shown to be significantly increased in healthy rats and men (256). In rats, astragalus has also been reported to inhibit decrements in sperm production and motility caused by cadmium exposure (257). Liu et al. recently reported that astragalus extract significantly increased in vitro sperm motility and viability in 30 infertile men (61). Ethanol extract (70%) of Astragalus membranaceus exhibited estrogenic activity (estrogenic relative potency of 8.47 x 10-5) (258).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: In animal and human research, astragalus lowered blood glucose (135; 136; 137; 138; 139; 140; 141) and altered insulin sensitivity (225; 226).
  • HypotensivesHypotensives: In animal and human research, astragalus lowered blood pressure (142; 143; 144; 136; 145). At higher doses, astragalus may increase blood pressure (145).
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: In human and animal research, astragalus appeared to stimulate the immune system and may alter the effects of immunosuppressant agents (108; 109; 110; 111; 112; 113; 114; 115; 116; 117; 118; 119; 120; 121; 122; 123; 124; 125; 126; 113; 127; 128; 129; 130; 131).
  • InotropesInotropes: In animal research, 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, displayed negative inotropic effects (142).
  • IronIron: In a clinical trial of Astragalus-containing mixtures, in children with beta-thalassemia intermedia, mean levels of hemoglobin increased after treatment (259).
  • Neurologic agentsNeurologic agents: In vitro, astragaloside IV (AS-IV), extracted from the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus, prevented 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in primary nigral culture and resulted in an increase in tyrosine hydrolase (TH)-immunopositive cells from 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (69). Furthermore, AS-IV treatment increased the level of TH and NOS (nitrite oxide synthase) immunoreactivities.
  • Osteoporosis agentsOsteoporosis agents: In vitro, F1, an herbal extract obtained from Astragalus membranaceus, and its main ingredient, 1-monolinolein, did not increase cell proliferation or alkaline phosphatase activity in Saos-2 cell lines; F1 inhibited osteoclast development (66). In vivo, in ovariectomized rats, F1 increased trabecular bone area of the tibia.
  • Radioprotective agentsRadioprotective agents: In vitro, astragalus has been reported to protect against radiation injury (261), and it may potentiate the effects of radioprotective herbs and supplements.
  • Rauwolfia alkaloidsRauwolfia alkaloids: According to anecdotal reports, Rauwolfia alkaloids may alter the effects of astragalus.
  • Renoprotective agentsRenoprotective agents: In human research, astragalus injection improved levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, and urinary levels of NAG, following cardiopulmonary bypass in infants with congenital heart disease (N=40) (262),
  • Rhizoma Ligustici ChuanxiongRhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong: Radix Astragali and rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong compound medication may decrease urinary albumin excretion and improve endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria (43).
  • SedativesSedatives: According to secondary sources, sedatives may reduce the effects of astragalus. In rats, Astragalus membranaceus significantly reduced stress-induced deficits on learning and memory on the spatial memory tasks and increased cholineacetyl transferase immunoreactivity (73). Furthermore, Astragalus membranaceus increased the amount of time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze and normalized increases of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain.
  • SeleniumSelenium: Selenium toxicity has been reported in range animals who eat astragalus (216).
  • StimulantsStimulants: According to secondary sources, astragalus may potentiate the stimulant effects of CNS stimulants.
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: Formononetin, an isoflavone-phytoestrogen found abundantly in Astragalusmongholicus Bunge, in combination with genistein, daidzein, and biochanin A, relaxed phenylephrine-preconstricted aorta ex vivo (155). Mechanical removal of endothelium, L-NAME, and methylene blue suppressed formononetin-induced relaxation. Furthermore, formononetin increased endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), but not inducible NO synthase, activity with an upregulation of eNOS mRNA and p-eNOS (Ser1177) protein expression.

Astragalus/Food Interactions:
  • GeneralGeneral: In theory, the consumption of the tragacanth (gummy sap derived from astragalus) may reduce absorption of agents taken by mouth. Therefore, tragacanth and other agents should be taken at separate times.
  • Amino acidsAmino acids: Dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) has been shown to regulate amino acid metabolism in weaned piglets (276).

Astragalus/Lab Interactions:
  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: In animal and human research, astragalus lowered blood pressure (142; 143; 144; 136; 145). At higher doses, astragalus may increase blood pressure (145).
  • Blood glucoseBlood glucose: In animal and human research, astragalus lowered blood glucose (136; 140; 141).
  • Cell countsCell counts: In human research, astragalus decreased CD8 count and increased the ratio of CD4 to CD8 (186). In human research, an astragalus-containing product increased CD3, CD4, and CD8 (260). In human research, astragalus decreased toxic (white blood cells, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine) effects associated with chemotherapy (186).
  • ChlorideChloride: Astragalus may increase the renal excretion of chloride (147).
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: Astragalosides may increase fibrinolysis (108; 132; 133) and theoretically may increase the risk of bleeding.
  • CreatinineCreatinine: In human research, astragalus reduced serum creatinine and improved CCr (178). In human research, astragalus decreased toxic (white blood cells, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine) effects associated with chemotherapy (186).
  • CytokinesCytokines: In human research, astragalus, alone or in combination with other products, decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (157; 260; 182; 262). In human research, astragalus increased IL-2 and IL-2R in patients with maintained hemodialysis (277).
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)Electrocardiogram (ECG): In human research, administration of Astragalus membranaceus has been shown to decrease the duration of ventricular late potentials (LP) (193).
  • Growth hormoneGrowth hormone: Astragalus may increase growth hormone levels (150).
  • Heart rateHeart rate: In animal research, 3-nitropropionic acid, a compound isolated from astragalus, displayed negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which appears to be related to inhibition of beta-adrenergic-mediated responses (142).
  • Hematological measurementsHematological measurements: In animal research, a combination of radix Astragali (AMW) and radix Angelicae (AGW) in cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced anemic rats enhanced blood cell numbers (red and white blood cells) (251).
  • HemoglobinHemoglobin: In a clinical trial of Astragalus-containing mixtures, in children with beta-thalassemia intermedia, mean levels of hemoglobin increased after treatment (259).
  • ImmunoglobulinsImmunoglobulins: In human research, astragalus increased levels of IgG and IgM (186).
  • Lipid profileLipid profile: In human research, multi-ingredient formulas containing astragalus decreased total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides, and increased HDL (137; 235).
  • N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG): In human research, astragalus decreased levels of urinary NAG (262).
  • ProteinProtein: In human research, astragalus reduced 24-hour urine protein, reduced urine microalbumin, and increased serum albumin (178).
  • SodiumSodium: Astragalus may increase the renal excretion of sodium (147).
  • Urea nitrogenUrea nitrogen: In human research, astragalus reduced urea nitrogen (178). In human research, astragalus decreased toxic (white blood cells, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine) effects associated with chemotherapy (186).

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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