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Anise (Pimpinella anisum)



Interactions

Anise/Drug Interactions:
  • AlkaloidsAlkaloids: Anise purportedly induced decomposition of alkaloids from an ipecacuanha root decoction (157).
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: In human study, saffron, celery seed, and anise extract (SCA extract) decreased pain scores associated with primary dysmenorrhea (66). The effects of anise extract on pain alone, however, are unclear.
  • Antiaging agentsAntiaging agents: Extracts from anise have demonstrated anti-elastase activity and anti-collagenase activity in vitro (158).
  • Antiarthritis agentsAntiarthritis agents: Anethole, a hydrophobic terpene, enhanced the absorption of the anti-inflammatory etodolac (81).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: Based on in vitro study, anise oil demonstrated antibacterial effects (9; 7; 159; 10; 160; 161; 162; 163; 8; 164; 165; 166; 167; 168).
  • Anticoagulant and antiplatelet agentsAnticoagulant and antiplatelet agents: Based on laboratory evidence, anise contains coumarin derivatives (73), and concurrent use of anise with agents that predispose to bleeding may enhance the effect and increase the risk of bleeding (69).
  • AnticonvulsantsAnticonvulsants: In animal study, anisole may have interacted with pentobarbital, although details are lacking (74). The fruit essential oil of anise induced neuronal hyperexcitability as evidenced by changes in the firing pattern from regular tonic discharge to irregular and then to bursting in intact cells induced by PTZ treatment in the snail (34).
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: Aniseed oil has been shown to increase glucose absorption in animal study (68).
  • Antifungal agentsAntifungal agents: In in vitro study, the antifungal effects of nagilactone (169), dodecanol (170), and decanol (171) were enhanced when combined with anethole. Essential oil and various constituents of anise have demonstrated antifungal effects on their own (172; 173; 18; 174; 15; 163). Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V) (15).
  • AntihistaminesAntihistamines: A water extract of eight herbs (chamomile, saffron, anise, fennel, caraway, licorice, cardamom, and black seed) inhibited histamine released from chemically and immunologically induced rat peritoneal mast cells (2). The effect of anise alone, however, is unclear.
  • Anti-inflammatory agentsAnti-inflammatory agents: Anethole, a constituent of anise, and essential oils from various Pimpinella species has been shown to inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-kappaB activation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kappaB reporter gene expression in vitro (175; 19; 176; 177; 178).
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: In rats fed a high-fat diet, an Egyptian herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of Terminalia chebula, senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel, and licorice) normalized the increases in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and LDL concentrations induced by the high-fat diet (32). The effect of anise alone, however, is unclear.
  • Antineoplastic agentsAntineoplastic agents: Anethole, a constituent of anise, has been shown to inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-kappaB activation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kappaB reporter gene expression in vitro (175). Anethole also demonstrated activity against Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in the paw of Swiss albino mice as evidenced by reductions in levels of nucleic acids and malondialdehyde, and increased glutathione (NP-SH) concentrations (179). Anethole increased survival time, reduced tumor weight and volume, and the body weight of EAT-bearing mice.
  • AntiprotozoalsAntiprotozoals: p-Anisaldehyde, a constituent of anise, showed nematicidal activities towards Caenorhabditis elegans (180).
  • Antispasmodic agentsAntispasmodic agents: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pimpinella anisum inhibited acetylcholine-induced contraction in the rat anococcygeus smooth muscle and preincubation of the preparations with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100mcM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 3mcM) and oxyhemoglobin (10mcM) reduced the relaxation induced by HA(60%) (21).
  • Antiviral agentsAntiviral agents: Trans-anethole and anise oil demonstrated highly selective antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus in vitro (181; 50; 49).
  • BronchodilatorsBronchodilators: In vitro study indicated that the relaxant effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of anise essential oil may be due to an inhibitory effect on muscarinic receptors (182).
  • Cholinesterase inhibitorsCholinesterase inhibitors: Ethanolic extract and monoterpenes from Pimpinella anisoides V Brig. have demonstrated inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in vitro (183; 184).
  • Cytochrome P450-modifying agentsCytochrome P450-modifying agents: Trans-anethole, a constituent of anise, induced polychlorinated diphenyls in a cytochrome P450-containing system of rat liver, increasing hepatotoxic effects (79). In rat study, trans-anethole induced phase II biotransformation enzymes (80).
  • DiureticsDiuretics: Animal study has shown anise to have antidiuretic effects (68).
  • Drugs that affect GABADrugs that affect GABA: In mouse study, anise essential oil reduced the effects of morphine via a GABAergic mechanism (77).
  • Fertility agentsFertility agents: In rats, trans-anethole induced 100% anti-implantation activity at 80mg/kg orally (96).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: Based on animal study, anise significantly inhibited gastric mucosal damage induced by necrotizing agents (e.g., 80% ethanol, 0.2M/L NaOH, 25% NaCl, and indomethacin) as evidenced by significant reductions in basal gastric acid secretion, acidity and inhibition of the rumenal ulceration (43).
  • Hormonal agentsHormonal agents: Anise essential oil contains anethole, a phytoestrogen with estrogenic effects (56; 185). Preliminary research has shown that anethole may not be the only constituent of anise with estrogenic effects; however, more research in this area is needed before any conclusions can be made. An aqueous extract of anise has shown antiestrogenic effects on breast cancer cells without any proliferative effects on cervical adenocarcinoma cells in vitro (59). The presence of estradiol reduced the antiestrogenic effect, which implies an estrogen receptor-related mechanism.
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In broiler chicks, aniseed extract promoted mean antibody titer against infectious bursal disease but not against Newcastle disease (186).
  • Iron saltsIron salts: In animal study, anise increased the absorption of iron (75).
  • Muscle relaxantsMuscle relaxants: Anise oil has demonstrated an increase in resting force of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle (187).
  • Neurological agentsNeurological agents: In in vitro study, anethole enhanced the penetration of transdermal delivery of selegiline hydrochloride (76). Trans-anethole and ethanol administered together induced psychotropic effects in mice, although details are lacking (188).
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: In in vitro study, low doses of anethole induced blood vessel contraction, and higher concentrations had relaxant effects (78).

Anise/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • Adrenal extractAdrenal extract: In animal study, a combination of anethole and adrenal extract antagonized glycogen formation in adrenalectomized rats (189).
  • AlkaloidsAlkaloids: Anise purportedly induced decomposition of alkaloids from an ipecacuanha root decoction (157).
  • AnalgesicsAnalgesics: In human study, SCA extract decreased pain scores associated with primary dysmenorrhea (66). The effects of anise extract on pain alone, however, are unclear.
  • Antiaging agentsAntiaging agents: Extracts from anise have demonstrated anti-elastase activity and anti-collagenase activity in vitro (158).
  • Antiarthritis agentsAntiarthritis agents: Anethole, a hydrophobic terpene, enhanced the absorption of the anti-inflammatory etodolac (81).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: Based on in vitro study, anise oil demonstrated antibacterial effects (9; 7; 159; 10; 160; 161; 162; 163; 8; 164; 165; 166; 167; 168).
  • AnticoagulantsAnticoagulants: Based on laboratory evidence, anise contains coumarin derivatives (73), and concurrent use of anise with agents that predispose to bleeding may enhance the effect and increase the risk of bleeding (69).
  • AnticonvulsantsAnticonvulsants: In animal study, anisole may have interacted with an anticonvulsant, although details are lacking (74). The fruit essential oil of anise induced neuronal hyperexcitability, as evidenced by changes in the firing pattern from regular tonic discharge to irregular and then to bursting in intact cells induced by PTZ treatment in the snail (34).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: In in vitro study, various antifungals (170; 171; 169) were enhanced when combined with anethole; the fungicidal action of polygodial was also enhanced when combined with anethole (190; 162; 191). Essential oil and various constituents of anise have demonstrated antifungal effects on their own (172; 173; 18; 174; 15; 163). Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V) (15).
  • Antihistamine herbs and supplementsAntihistamine herbs and supplements: A water extract of eight herbs (chamomile, saffron, anise, fennel, caraway, licorice, cardamom and black seed) inhibited histamine released from chemically and immunologically induced rat peritoneal mast cells (2). The effect of anise alone, however, is unclear.
  • Anti-inflammatory herbs and supplementsAnti-inflammatory herbs and supplements: Anethole, a constituent of anise, and essential oils from various Pimpinella species have been shown to inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-kappaB activation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kappaB reporter gene expression in vitro (175; 19; 176; 177; 178).
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: In rats fed a high-fat diet, an Egyptian herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of Terminalia chebula, senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel, and licorice) normalized the increases in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and LDL concentrations induced by the high-fat diet (32). The effect of anise alone, however, is unclear.
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Anethole, a constituent of anise, has been shown to inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-kappaB activation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kappaB reporter gene expression in vitro (175). Anethole also demonstrated activity against Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in the paw of Swiss albino mice as evidenced by reductions in levels of nucleic acids and malondialdehyde, and increased glutathione (NP-SH) concentrations (179). Anethole increased survival time, reduced tumor weight and volume, and the body weight of EAT-bearing mice.
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Anise has demonstrated strong antioxidant effects in the deoxyribose assay (OH*) (192). In in vitro study, "sconio" (Pimpinella anisum) reduced the clastogenic effect of arsenite (193).
  • AntiparasiticsAntiparasitics: p-Anisaldehyde, a constituent of anise, showed nematicidal activities towards Caenorhabditis elegans (180).
  • AntispasmodicsAntispasmodics: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pimpinella anisum inhibited acetylcholine-induced contraction in the rat anococcygeus smooth muscle and preincubation of the preparations with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100mcM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 3mcM) and oxyhemoglobin (10mcM) reduced the relaxation induced by HA (60%) (21).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: Trans-anethole and anise oil demonstrated highly selective antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus in vitro (181; 50; 49).
  • BronchodilatorsBronchodilators: In vitro study indicated that the relaxant effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of anise essential oil may be due to an inhibitory effect on muscarinic receptors (182).
  • Cajeput oilCajeput oil: In lab study, trans-anethole acted synergistically with alpha-terpineol, a main constituent of cajeput oil, against tobacco cutworms (Spodoptera litura Fab.) (194).
  • Cytochrome P450-modifying herbs and supplementsCytochrome P450-modifying herbs and supplements: Trans-anethol, a constituent of anise, induced polychlorinated diphenyls in a cytochrome P450-containing system of rat liver, increasing hepatotoxic effects (79). In in vivo rat study, trans-anethole induced phase II biotransformation enzymes (80).
  • DiureticsDiuretics: Animal study has shown anise to have antidiuretic effects (68).
  • Fertility herbs and supplementsFertility herbs and supplements: In rats, trans-anethole induced 100% anti-implantation activity at 80mg/kg orally (96).
  • Gastrointestinal herbs and supplementsGastrointestinal herbs and supplements: Based on animal study, anise significantly inhibited gastric mucosal damage induced by necrotizing agents (e.g., 80% ethanol, 0.2M/L NaOH, 25% NaCl, and indomethacin) as evidenced by significant reductions in basal gastric acid secretion, acidity, and inhibition of the rumenal ulceration (43).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: Aniseed oil has been shown to increase glucose absorption in animal studies (68).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In broiler chicks, aniseed extract promoted mean antibody titer against infectious bursal disease but not against Newcastle disease (186).
  • Insect repellantsInsect repellants: In animal study, anisoles may have interacted with insecticides, although details are lacking (74). In clinical trial, a combination coconut and anise spray was found to be effective for treatment of head lice (195). In lab study, trans-anethole acted synergistically with thymol, citronellal, and alpha-terpineol against tobacco cutworms (Spodoptera litura Fab.) (194).
  • Iron saltsIron salts: In animal study, anise increased the absorption of iron (75).
  • LemongrassLemongrass: In lab study, trans-anethole acted synergistically with citronellal, a main constituent of lemongrass, against tobacco cutworms (Spodoptera litura Fab.) (194).
  • Muscle relaxantsMuscle relaxants: Anise oil has demonstrated an increase in resting force of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle (187).
  • Neurological agentsNeurological agents: In in vitro study, anethole enhanced the penetration of transdermal delivery of a neurological agent (76). In mouse study, anise essential oil reduced the effects of morphine via a GABAergic mechanism (77). Trans-anethole and ethanol administered together induced psychotropic effects in mice, although details are lacking (188).
  • PhytoestrogensPhytoestrogens: Anise essential oil contains anethole, a phytoestrogen with estrogenic effects (56; 185). Preliminary research has shown that anethole may not be the only constituent of anise with estrogenic effects; however, more research in this area is needed before any conclusions can be made. An aqueous extract of anise has shown antiestrogenic effects on breast cancer cells without any proliferative effects on cervical adenocarcinoma cells in vitro (59). The presence of estradiol reduced the antiestrogenic effect, which implies an estrogen receptor-related mechanism.
  • ThymeThyme: In lab study, trans-anethole acted synergistically with thymol, a main constituent of thyme, against tobacco cutworms (Spodoptera litura Fab.) (194).
  • VasodilatorsVasodilators: In in vitro study, low doses of anethole induced blood vessel contraction, and higher concentrations had relaxant effects (78).

Anise/Food Interactions:
  • Iron-containing foodsIron-containing foods: In animal study, anise increased the absorption of iron (75).

Anise/Lab Interactions:
  • Estrogen levelsEstrogen levels: Based on laboratory evidence, anise may alter estrogen levels, as some constituents of anise have estrogenic effects (56; 59).
  • GlucoseGlucose: Aniseed oil has been shown to increase glucose absorption in animal study (68).
  • IronIron: In animal study, anise increased the absorption of iron (75).
  • Plasma lipidsPlasma lipids: In rats fed a high-fat diet, an Egyptian herbal mixture formulation (HMF) (consisting of Terminalia chebula, senae, rhubarb, black cumin, aniseed, fennel, and licorice) normalized the increases in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and LDL concentrations induced by the high-fat diet (32). The effect of anise alone, however, is unclear.
  • PotassiumPotassium: Anise-containing beverages have been shown to cause hypokalemia, secondary to exogenous hypermineralcorticism (70; 71; 72). Serum potassium level may be reduced as an adverse reaction to anise (70).
  • Prothrombin time/INR (international normalized ratio)Prothrombin time/INR (international normalized ratio): In laboratory studies, anise has been shown to contain coumarin derivatives (73) and may alter coagulation (69).

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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